Difference between revisions of "CurryHowardLambek correspondence"
Uchchwhash (talk  contribs) (more to come) 
Uchchwhash (talk  contribs) 

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== Inference == 
== Inference == 

−  A (nontrivial) Haskell function 
+  A (nontrivial) Haskell function maps a value (of type <hask>a</hask>, say) to another value (of type <hask>b</hask>), therefore, ''given'' a value of type <hask>a</hask> (a proof of <hask>a</hask>), it ''constructs'' a value of type <hask>b</hask> (so the proof is ''transformed'' into a proof of <hask>b</hask>)! So <hask>b</hask> is inhibited if <hask>a</hask> is, and a proof of <hask>a > b</hask> is established (hence the notation, in case you were wondering). 
−  <haskell> 
+  <haskell>representation :: Bool > Integer 
−  +  representation False = 0 

−  +  representation True = 1</haskell> 

says, for example, if <hask>Boolean</hask> is inhibited, so is <hask>Integer</hask> (well, the point here is demonstration, not discovery). 
says, for example, if <hask>Boolean</hask> is inhibited, so is <hask>Integer</hask> (well, the point here is demonstration, not discovery). 

== Connectives == 
== Connectives == 

Of course, atomic propositions contribute little towards knowledge, and the Haskell type system incorporates the logical connectives <math>\and</math> and <math>\or</math>, though heavily disguised. 
Of course, atomic propositions contribute little towards knowledge, and the Haskell type system incorporates the logical connectives <math>\and</math> and <math>\or</math>, though heavily disguised. 

−  Haskell handles <math>\or</math> conjuction in the manner described by Intuitionistic Logic. When a program has type <math>a \or b</math>, the value returned itself indicates 
+  Haskell handles <math>\or</math> conjuction in the manner described by Intuitionistic Logic. When a program has type <math>a \or b</math>, the value returned itself indicates which one. The algebraic data types in Haskell has a tag on each alternative, the constructor, to indicate the injections: 
+  <haskell>data Message a = OK a  Warning a  Error a 

+  p2pShare :: Integer > Message String 

+  p2pShare n  n == 0 = Warning "Share! Freeloading hurts your peers." 

+   n < 0 = Error "You cannot possibly share a negative number of files!" 

+   n > 0 = OK ("You are sharing " ++ show n ++ " files." 

+  </haskell> 

+  So any one of <hask>OK String</hask>, <hask>Warning String</hask> or <hask>Error String</hask> proves the proposition <hask>Message String</hask>, leaving out any two constructors would not invalidate the program. At the same time, a proof of <hask>Message String</hask> can be pattern matched against the constructors to see which one it proves. 

+  On the other hand, to prove <hask>String</hask> is inhibited from the proposition <hask>Message String</hask>, it has to be proven that you can prove <hask>String</hask> from any of the alternatives... 

+  <haskell> 

+  show :: Message String > String 

+  show (OK s) = s 

+  show (Warning s) = "Warning: " ++ s 

+  show (Error s) = "ERROR! " ++ s 

+  </haskell> 

+  The <math>\and</math> conjuction is handled via an isomorphism in Closed Cartesian Categories in general (Haskell types belong to this category): <math>\mathrm{Hom}(X\times Y,Z) \cong \mathrm{Hom}(X,Z^Y)</math>. 

== Theorems for free! == 
== Theorems for free! == 
Revision as of 06:56, 2 November 2006
CurryHoward Isomorphism is an isomorphism between types (in programming languages) and propositions (in logic). Interestingly, the isomorphism maps programs (functions in Haskell) to (constructive) proofs (and vice versa).
The Answer
As is well established by now,
theAnswer :: Integer
theAnswer = 42
The logical interpretation of the program is that the type Integer
is inhibited (by the value 42
), so the existence of this program proves the proposition Integer
(a type without any value is the "bottom" type, a proposition with no proof).
Inference
A (nontrivial) Haskell function maps a value (of type a
, say) to another value (of type b
), therefore, given a value of type a
(a proof of a
), it constructs a value of type b
(so the proof is transformed into a proof of b
)! So b
is inhibited if a
is, and a proof of a > b
is established (hence the notation, in case you were wondering).
representation :: Bool > Integer
representation False = 0
representation True = 1
says, for example, if Boolean
is inhibited, so is Integer
(well, the point here is demonstration, not discovery).
Connectives
Of course, atomic propositions contribute little towards knowledge, and the Haskell type system incorporates the logical connectives and , though heavily disguised. Haskell handles conjuction in the manner described by Intuitionistic Logic. When a program has type , the value returned itself indicates which one. The algebraic data types in Haskell has a tag on each alternative, the constructor, to indicate the injections:
data Message a = OK a  Warning a  Error a
p2pShare :: Integer > Message String
p2pShare n  n == 0 = Warning "Share! Freeloading hurts your peers."
 n < 0 = Error "You cannot possibly share a negative number of files!"
 n > 0 = OK ("You are sharing " ++ show n ++ " files."
So any one of OK String
, Warning String
or Error String
proves the proposition Message String
, leaving out any two constructors would not invalidate the program. At the same time, a proof of Message String
can be pattern matched against the constructors to see which one it proves.
On the other hand, to prove String
is inhibited from the proposition Message String
, it has to be proven that you can prove String
from any of the alternatives...
show :: Message String > String
show (OK s) = s
show (Warning s) = "Warning: " ++ s
show (Error s) = "ERROR! " ++ s
The conjuction is handled via an isomorphism in Closed Cartesian Categories in general (Haskell types belong to this category): .
Theorems for free!
Things get interesting when polymorphism comes in. The composition operator in Haskell proves a very simple theorem.
(.) :: (a > b) > (b > c) > (a > c)
(.) f g x = f (g x)
The type is, actually, forall a b c. (a > b) > (b > c) > (a > c)
, to be a bit verbose, which says, logically speaking, for all propositions a, b
and c
, if from a
, b
can be proven, and if from b
, c
can be proven, then from a
, c
can be proven (the program says how to go about proving: just compose the given proofs!)