# 99 questions/Solutions/10

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encode :: Eq a => [a] -> [(Int, a)] | encode :: Eq a => [a] -> [(Int, a)] | ||

encode xs = map (length &&& head) $ group xs | encode xs = map (length &&& head) $ group xs | ||

+ | </haskell> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Or using the slightly more verbose (w.r.t. <hask>(&&&)</hask>) Applicative combinators: | ||

+ | |||

+ | <haskell> | ||

+ | encode :: Eq a => [a] -> [(Int, a)] | ||

+ | encode = map ((,) <$> length <*> head) . pack | ||

+ | </haskell> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Or with the help of foldr (''pack'' is the resulting function from P09): | ||

+ | |||

+ | <haskell> | ||

+ | encode xs = (enc . pack) xs | ||

+ | where enc = foldr (\x acc -> (length x, head x) : acc) [] | ||

+ | </haskell> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Or using takeWhile and dropWhile: | ||

+ | |||

+ | <haskell> | ||

+ | encode [] = [] | ||

+ | encode (x:xs) = (length $ x : takeWhile (==x) xs, x) | ||

+ | : encode (dropWhile (==x) xs) | ||

+ | </haskell> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Or without higher order functions: | ||

+ | |||

+ | <haskell> | ||

+ | encode [] = [] | ||

+ | encode (x:xs) = encode' 1 x xs where | ||

+ | encode' n x [] = [(n, x)] | ||

+ | encode' n x (y:ys) | ||

+ | | x == y = encode' (n + 1) x ys | ||

+ | | otherwise = (n, x) : encode' 1 y ys | ||

+ | </haskell> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Or we can make use of zip and group: | ||

+ | |||

+ | <haskell> | ||

+ | import List | ||

+ | encode :: Eq a => [a] -> [(Int, a)] | ||

+ | encode xs=zip (map length l) h where | ||

+ | l = (group xs) | ||

+ | h = map head l | ||

</haskell> | </haskell> |

## Revision as of 11:23, 26 July 2012

(*) Run-length encoding of a list.

Use the result of problem P09 to implement the so-called run-length encoding data compression method. Consecutive duplicates of elements are encoded as lists (N E) where N is the number of duplicates of the element E.

encode xs = map (\x -> (length x,head x)) (group xs)

which can also be expressed as a list comprehension:

[(length x, head x) | x <- group xs]

Or writing it Pointfree (Note that the type signature is essential here to avoid hitting the Monomorphism Restriction):

encode :: Eq a => [a] -> [(Int, a)] encode = map (\x -> (length x, head x)) . group

Or (ab)using the "&&&" arrow operator for tuples:

encode :: Eq a => [a] -> [(Int, a)] encode xs = map (length &&& head) $ group xs

(&&&)

encode :: Eq a => [a] -> [(Int, a)] encode = map ((,) <$> length <*> head) . pack

Or with the help of foldr (*pack* is the resulting function from P09):

encode xs = (enc . pack) xs where enc = foldr (\x acc -> (length x, head x) : acc) []

Or using takeWhile and dropWhile:

encode [] = [] encode (x:xs) = (length $ x : takeWhile (==x) xs, x) : encode (dropWhile (==x) xs)

Or without higher order functions:

encode [] = [] encode (x:xs) = encode' 1 x xs where encode' n x [] = [(n, x)] encode' n x (y:ys) | x == y = encode' (n + 1) x ys | otherwise = (n, x) : encode' 1 y ys

Or we can make use of zip and group:

import List encode :: Eq a => [a] -> [(Int, a)] encode xs=zip (map length l) h where l = (group xs) h = map head l