Cookbook

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Revision as of 05:46, 24 February 2007 by Chriseidhof (talk | contribs) (Added a simple IO example using interact)

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We need to start a GOOD (aka, not a PLEAC clone) Haskell cookbook.

This page is based on the Scheme Cookbook at http://schemecookbook.org/Cookbook/WebHome

GHCi/Hugs

GHCi interaction

To start GHCi from a command prompt, simply type `ghci'

   $ ghci
      ___         ___ _
     / _ \ /\  /\/ __(_)
    / /_\// /_/ / /  | |      GHC Interactive, version 6.6, for Haskell 98.
   / /_\\/ __  / /___| |      http://www.haskell.org/ghc/
   \____/\/ /_/\____/|_|      Type :? for help.
   
   Loading package base ... linking ... done.
   Prelude>

Prelude is the "base" library of Haskell.

To create variables at the GHCi prompt, use `let'

Prelude> let x = 5
Prelude> x
5
Prelude> let y = 3
Prelude> y
3
Prelude> x + y
8

Types

To check the type of an expression or function, use the command `:t'

Prelude> :t x
x :: Integer
Prelude> :t y
y :: Integer

Haskell has the following types defined in the Standard Prelude.

    Int         -- bounded, word-sized integers
    Integer     -- unbounded integers
    Double      -- floating point values
    Char        -- characters
    String      -- strings
    ()          -- the unit type
    Bool        -- booleans
    [a]         -- lists
    (a,b)       -- tuples / product types
    Either a b  -- sum types
    Maybe a     -- optional values

Strings

Input

Strings can be read as input using getLine.

Prelude> getLine
Foo bar baz
"Foo bar baz"

Output

Strings can be output in a number of different ways.

Prelude> putStr "Foo"
FooPrelude>

As you can see, putStr does not include the newline character `\n'. We can either use putStr like this:

Prelude> putStr "Foo\n"
Foo

Or use putStrLn, which is already in the Standard Prelude

Prelude> putStrLn "Foo"
Foo

We can also use print to print a string, including the quotation marks.

Prelude> print "Foo"
"Foo"

Concatenation

Concatenation of strings is done with the `++' operator.

Prelude> "foo" ++ "bar"
"foobar"

Numbers

Numbers in Haskell can be of the type Int, Integer, Float, Double, or Rational.

Random numbers

Dates and time

Use System.Time.getClockTime to get a properly formatted date stamp.

Prelude> System.Time.getClockTime
Wed Feb 21 20:05:35 CST 2007

Lists

Haskell has all of the general list manipulation functions.

Prelude> head [1,2,3]
1

Prelude> tail [1,2,3]
[2,3]

Prelude> length [1,2,3]
3

Pattern matching

Haskell does implicit pattern matching.

A good example of pattern matching is done in the fact function for finding a factorial.

fact :: Integer -> Integer
fact 0 = 1
fact n = n * fact (n - 1)

In this function, fact :: Integer -> Integer is the functions type definition.

The next line, fact 0 = 1 is a pattern match, so when the argument to the function fact is 0, the return value is 1.

The 3rd and final line of this function is another pattern match, which says that, whatever number was entered as the argument, is multiplied by the factorial of that number, minus 1. Notice this function is recursive.

Pattern matching in Haskell evaluates the patterns in the order they are written, so fact 0 = 1 is evaluated before fact n = n * fact (n - 1).

Arrays

Files

Simple IO

Using interact :: (String -> String) -> IO (), you can easily do things with stdin and stdout.

A program to sum up numbers:

main = interact $ show . sum . map read . lines

A program that adds line numbers to each line:

main = interact numberLines numberLines = unlines . zipWith combine [1..] . lines where combine lineNumber text = concat [show lineNumber, " ", text]

Reading from files

Writing to files

Creating new files

Network Programming

XML

Parsing XML

Databases

MySQL

PostgreSQL

SQLite

FFI

How to interface with C