Toy compression implementations
This code is provided in the hope that someone might find it interesting/entertaining, and to demonstrate what an excellent programming language Haskell truly is. (A working polymorphic LZW implementation in 10 lines? Try that in Java!)
This is 'toy' code. Please don't try to use it to compress multi-GB of data. It has not been thoroughly checked for correctness, and I shudder to think what the time and space complexity would be like! However, it is enlightening and entertaining to see how many algorithms you can implement with a handful of lines...
MathematicalOrchid 16:46, 15 February 2007 (UTC)
module Compression where import Data.List import Data.Word -- In case you want it. (Not actually used anywhere!) chars = [' '..'~'] -- Becuase ' ' = 0x20 and '~' = 0x7F. -- Run-length encoding encode_RLE :: (Eq t) => [t] -> [(Int,t)] encode_RLE = map (\xs -> (length xs, head xs)) . groupBy (==) decode_RLE :: [(Int,t)] -> [t] decode_RLE = concatMap (uncurry replicate) -- Limpel-Ziv-Welch encoding encode_LZW :: (Eq t) => [t] -> [t] -> [Int] encode_LZW _  =  encode_LZW alphabet (x:xs) = work (make alphabet) [x] xs where make = map (\x -> [x]) work table buffer  = [maybe undefined id $ elemIndex buffer table] work table buffer (x:xs) = let new = buffer ++ [x] in case elemIndex new table of Nothing -> maybe undefined id (elemIndex buffer table) : work (table ++ [new]) [x] xs Just _ -> work table new xs decode_LZW :: [t] -> [Int] -> [t] decode_LZW _  =  decode_LZW alphabet xs = work (length alphabet) (make alphabet)  xs where make = map (\x -> [x]) work _ t _  =  work n table prev (x:xs) = case x >= n of True -> error "underflow" -- THIS NEEDS FIXING! False -> let out = table !! x in out ++ if null prev then work n table out xs else work (n+1) (table ++ [prev ++ [head out]]) out xs
Some examples are in order:
> encode_RLE "AAAABBBBDDCCCCEEEGGFFFF" [(4,'A'),(4,'B'),(2,'D'),(4,'C'),(3,'E'),(2,'G'),(4,'F')] > decode_RLE [(4,'A'),(4,'B'),(2,'D'),(4,'C'),(3,'E'),(2,'G'),(4,'F')] "AAAABBBBDDCCCCEEEGGFFFF" > encode_LZW chars "This is just a simple test." [52,72,73,83,0,97,0,74,85,83,84,0,65,0,83,73,77,80,76,69,0,84,69,104,14] > decode_LZW chars [52,72,73,83,0,97,0,74,85,83,84,0,65,0,83,73,77,80,76,69,0,84,69,104,14] "This is just a simple test."
module Huffman (count, markov1, Tree, encode_huffman, decode_huffman) where import Data.List (nub) -- Marvok1 probability model... count :: (Eq t) => [t] -> [(t,Int)] count xs = map (\x -> (x, length $ filter (x ==) xs)) $ nub xs markov1 :: (Eq t) => [t] -> [(t,Double)] markov1 xs = let n = fromIntegral $ length xs in map (\(x,c) -> (x, fromIntegral c / n)) $ count xs -- Build a Huffman tree... data Tree t = Leaf Double t | Branch Double (Tree t) (Tree t) deriving Show prob :: Tree t -> Double prob (Leaf p _) = p prob (Branch p _ _) = p get_tree :: [Tree t] -> (Tree t, [Tree t]) get_tree (t:ts) = work t  ts where work x xs  = (x,xs) work x xs (y:ys) | prob y < prob x = work y (x:xs) ys | otherwise = work x (y:xs) ys huffman_build :: [(t,Double)] -> Tree t huffman_build = build . map (\(t,p) -> Leaf p t) where build [t] = t build ts = let (t0,ts0) = get_tree ts (t1,ts1) = get_tree ts0 in build $ Branch (prob t0 + prob t1) t0 t1 : ts1 -- Make codebook... data Bit = Zero | One deriving (Eq, Show) type Bits = [Bit] huffman_codebook :: Tree t -> [(t,Bits)] huffman_codebook = work  where work bs (Leaf _ x) = [(x,bs)] work bs (Branch _ t0 t1) = work (bs ++ [Zero]) t0 ++ work (bs ++ [One]) t1 -- Do the coding! encode :: (Eq t) => [(t,Bits)] -> [t] -> Bits encode cb = concatMap (\x -> maybe undefined id $ lookup x cb) decode :: (Eq t) => Tree t -> Bits -> [t] decode t = work t t where work _ (Leaf _ x)  = [x] work t (Leaf _ x) bs = x : work t t bs work t (Branch _ t0 t1) (b:bs) | b == Zero = work t t0 bs | otherwise = work t t1 bs encode_huffman :: (Eq t) => [t] -> (Tree t, Bits) encode_huffman xs = let t = huffman_build $ markov1 xs bs = encode (huffman_codebook t) xs in (t,bs) decode_huffman :: (Eq t) => Tree t -> Bits -> [t] decode_huffman = decode
If anybody can make this code shorter / more elegant, feel free!
A short demo:
> encode_huffman "this is just a simple test" <loads of data> > decode_huffman (fst it) (snd it) "this is just a simple test"