# Difference between revisions of "TypeCompose"

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[[Category:Libraries]] | [[Category:Libraries]] | ||

[[Category:Packages]] | [[Category:Packages]] | ||

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== Abstract == | == Abstract == | ||

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'''TypeCompose''' provides some classes & instances for forms of type composition, as well as some modules that haven't found another home. | '''TypeCompose''' provides some classes & instances for forms of type composition, as well as some modules that haven't found another home. | ||

− | Besides this wiki page, here are more ways to | + | Besides this wiki page, here are more ways to find out about TypeCompose: |

− | * | + | * Visit the [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/TypeCompose Hackage page] for library documentation and to download & install. |

− | * Get the code repository: | + | * Or install with <tt>cabal install TypeCompose</tt>. |

− | + | * Get the code repository: <tt>darcs get http://code.haskell.org/TypeCompose</tt>. | |

* See the [[TypeCompose/Versions| version history]]. | * See the [[TypeCompose/Versions| version history]]. | ||

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== Type composition == | == Type composition == | ||

The <hask>Control.Compose</hask> module includes | The <hask>Control.Compose</hask> module includes | ||

− | * Various type compositions (unary/unary, binary/unary, etc). Most are from [http://www.soi.city.ac.uk/~ross/papers/Applicative.html Applicative Programming with Effects]. In particular, <hask>g | + | * Various type compositions (unary/unary, binary/unary, etc). Most are from [http://www.soi.city.ac.uk/~ross/papers/Applicative.html Applicative Programming with Effects]. In particular, <hask>g `O` f</hask> composes functors in to functors and applicative functors (AFs) into AFs. (In contrast, monads do not in general compose.) Composition makes AF-based programming simple and elegant, partly because we don't need an AF counterpart to monad transformers. |

* Cofunctors (contravariant functors). Great for "consumer" types, just as functors suit "producer" (container) types. There are several composition options. | * Cofunctors (contravariant functors). Great for "consumer" types, just as functors suit "producer" (container) types. There are several composition options. | ||

* Type argument flip. Handy for cofunctors: use <hask>Flip (->) o</hask>, for <hask>(-> o)</hask>. | * Type argument flip. Handy for cofunctors: use <hask>Flip (->) o</hask>, for <hask>(-> o)</hask>. | ||

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=== Pair- & function-like types === | === Pair- & function-like types === | ||

− | The <hask>Data.Pair</hask> and <hask>Data.Lambda</hask> patterns emerged while working on [[DeepArrow]] and [[Eros]]. <hask>Data.Pair</hask> generalizes <hask>zip</hask> and unzip from <hask>[]</hask> to other functors. It also provides variants of type <hask>f a -> f (a,b)</hask> and <hask>f a -> f (a,b)</hask>. <hask>Data.Lambda</hask> is similar with classes for lambda-like constructions. | + | The <hask>Data.Pair</hask> and <hask>Data.Lambda</hask> patterns emerged while working on [[DeepArrow]] and [[Eros]]. <hask>Data.Pair</hask> generalizes <hask>zip</hask> and <hask>unzip</hask> from <hask>[]</hask> to other functors. It also provides variants of type <hask>f a -> f (a,b)</hask> and <hask>f a -> f (a,b)</hask>. <hask>Data.Lambda</hask> is similar with classes for lambda-like constructions. |

For example uses of <hask>Pair</hask> and <hask>Lambda</hask>, see [[TV]] and [[Eros]]. | For example uses of <hask>Pair</hask> and <hask>Lambda</hask>, see [[TV]] and [[Eros]]. | ||

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=== Partial values === | === Partial values === | ||

− | A monoid of partial values. See the [http://conal | + | A monoid of partial values. See the [http://conal.net/blog/posts/a-type-for-partial-values/ teaser] and [http://conal.net/blog/posts/implementing-a-type-for-partial-values/ solution] blog |

posts. | posts. | ||

## Revision as of 18:58, 11 November 2008

## Contents

## Abstract

**TypeCompose** provides some classes & instances for forms of type composition, as well as some modules that haven't found another home.

Besides this wiki page, here are more ways to find out about TypeCompose:

- Visit the Hackage page for library documentation and to download & install.
- Or install with
`cabal install TypeCompose`. - Get the code repository:
`darcs get http://code.haskell.org/TypeCompose`. - See the version history.

## Type composition

The `Control.Compose`

module includes

- Various type compositions (unary/unary, binary/unary, etc). Most are from Applicative Programming with Effects. In particular,
`g `O` f`

composes functors in to functors and applicative functors (AFs) into AFs. (In contrast, monads do not in general compose.) Composition makes AF-based programming simple and elegant, partly because we don't need an AF counterpart to monad transformers. - Cofunctors (contravariant functors). Great for "consumer" types, just as functors suit "producer" (container) types. There are several composition options.
- Type argument flip. Handy for cofunctors: use
`Flip (->) o`

, for`(-> o)`

. - Constructor in pairs:
`(f a, g a)`

. - Constructor in arrows/functions:
`f a ~> g a`

.

## Other features

### Composable bijections

Given all the type constructors and compositions of them, I found myself writing some pretty awkward code to wrap & unwrap through multiple layers. Composable bijections help a lot.

The `Data.Bijection`

module is inspired by There and Back Again: Arrows for Invertible Programming, though done here in a less general setting.

### Pair- & function-like types

The `Data.Pair`

and `Data.Lambda`

patterns emerged while working on DeepArrow and Eros. `Data.Pair`

generalizes `zip`

and `unzip`

from `[]`

to other functors. It also provides variants of type `f a -> f (a,b)`

and `f a -> f (a,b)`

. `Data.Lambda`

is similar with classes for lambda-like constructions.

For example uses of `Pair`

and `Lambda`

, see TV and Eros.

### References

Monads with references. Direct rip-off from Global Variables in Haskell.

### Titling

For giving titles to things. I know it sounds kind of random. More useful than I first thought. Used in Phooey, TV, and Eros.

### Partial values

A monoid of partial values. See the teaser and solution blog posts.

### Context-dependent monoids

Bit of an oddball also. `Data.CxMonoid`

defines a sort of meta-monoid, that can be supplied dynamically with choices of `mempty`

and `mappend`

. Used in Phooey (starting with version 1.3) so that layout could be a monoid but still vary in style.