# The Other Prelude

## Contents

## Call For Contribution

This fun project, called *The Other Prelude*, is a creative reconstruction of the standard Prelude. By disregarding history and compatibility, we get a clean sheet.

## Committee

This project has no committee whatsoever. Issues are discussed on the talk page.

## Naming Conventions

- Function names should be easy for beginners to consume.
- Specifically,
*The Other Prelude*naming convention is to use- descriptive symbols for functions that are naturally infix (
*e.g.*,`mplus`

is replaced by`(++)`

) - whole English words and camelCase for functions (
*e.g.*,`orElse`

but not`fmap`

)

- descriptive symbols for functions that are naturally infix (

## Design Philosophy

### Taking Typeclasses Seriously

Following Not just Maybe, functions should be generalized whenever possible. Of course, efficiency might be a concern but this is a fun project anyway.

`concat`

means the same thing as`join`

. We propose we don't use`concat`

at all.`concatMap`

is just`(>>=)`

. That is, monadic functions are preferred over the same functions with different name.

### The Hierarchy

Although, not Haskell98, hierarchical modules are already in Haskell2010. We take it for granted.

`TheOtherPrelude`

- Minimalistic module.`TheOtherPrelude.Utilities`

- Convenient definitions. The reasoning behind its existence is that we want the Prelude to be very concise. It should not steal good names.`TheOtherPrelude.Legacy`

- providing as much backwards compatibility as possible

## Open Issues

- When the same function has an infix and a prefix implementation, should one of them be outside the class to enforce consistency?
- Should Prelude functions use
`Integer`

instead of`Int`

? Maybe`Integral n => n`

or`Ix i => i`

in some cases? - Should
`String`

be a class rather than a type synonym? - The current proposal lacks a well thought
`fail`

mechanism. Should it be integrated into`MonadZero`

, or have a class of his own, or remain in the`Monad`

class?

## Reality

What we have here right now is not ready to be adopted by existing projects. The class system extension proposal might make a difference.

## The Code

Currently, the code is in Wiki form. If people do agree that the collaborative decisions begot something pretty, we'll have a group of files in darcs.haskell.org some time.

The imaginary Prelude as it stands:

`TheOtherPrelude.hs`

```
{-# LANGUAGE NoImplicitPrelude #-}
module TheOtherPrelude where
import Prelude (id, const, flip, (.))
-- hide almost everything
-- in fact, we could do better, by just defining them here
-- The idea is to rename 'fmap'.
-- Both map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] (in [])
-- and (.) :: (a -> b) -> (e -> a) -> (e -> b) (in (->) e)
-- are good names, and are intuitively prefix and infix respectively.
-- 'map' is aliased as (.) below.
class Functor f where
map :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
-- definitely a bad idea, sorry Cale!
-- (.) :: (Functor f) => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
-- (.) = map
class (Functor p) => Applicative p where
-- Minimal complete definition: return and (<@>).
pure :: a -> p a -- value lifting
-- actually I think we should
-- stick to return
-- to make do notation work
(<@>) :: p (a -> b) -> p a -> p b -- lifted application
(>>) :: p a -> p b -> p b -- when the second is independent of the first
pa >> pb = (const id) . pa <@> pb
--map f pa = return f <@> pa -- see Class system extension proposal, below
apply :: (Applicative p) => p (a -> b) -> p a -> p b
apply = (<@>)
class (Applicative m) => Monad m where
-- Minimal complete definition: one of join or (>>=).
(>>=) :: m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b -- bind
join :: m (m a) -> m a -- combining levels of structure
ma >>= k = join (map k ma)
join mma = mma >>= id
--mf <@> ma = mf >>= flip map ma -- see Class system extension proposal, below
--ma >> mb = ma >>= const mb
--map f ma = ma >>= return . f -- this depends on (.), which is map! Be careful.
-- We copy from the MonadPlus reform proposal (link below) now.
-- 'zero' will be used when pattern matching against refutable patterns in
-- do-notation as well as to provide support for monad comprehensions.
class (Monad mz) => MonadZero mz where
-- Should satisfy 'left zero': zero >>= f = zero
zero :: mz a
class (MonadZero mp) => MonadPlus mp where
-- Should satisfy 'monoid':
-- zero ++ b = b; b ++ zero = b
-- (a ++ b) ++ c = a ++ (b ++ c)
-- and 'left distribution':
-- (a ++ b) >>= f = (a >>= f) ++ (b >>= f)
(++) :: mp a -> mp a -> mp a
class (MonadZero mo) => MonadOr mo where
-- Should satisfy 'monoid':
-- zero `orElse` b = b; b `orElse` zero = b
-- (a `orElse` b) `orElse` c = a `orElse` (b `orElse` c)
-- and 'left catch':
-- (return a) `orElse` b = a
orElse :: mo a -> mo a -> mo a
class (Monad m) => MonadFail m where
fail :: String -> m a
```

`TheOtherPrelude/Utilities.hs`

```
module TheOtherPrelude.Utilities where
import Prelude () -- hide everything
-- this is the if-then-else proposal
-- the name has been chosen to reflect the magic of Church booleans!
-- the order of arguments matches that of maybe and either.
boolean x _ True = x
boolean _ y False = y
```

## How To Use

```
-- ''The Other Prelude'' is an alternative, not a replacement.
-- So we need to hide everything from the Prelude
--import Prelude ()
-- Now that we have it,
{-# LANGUAGE NoImplicitPrelude #-}
-- This is just an example assuming there is nothing to hide
import TheOtherPrelude
-- Hopefully, this module will contain lift,...
-- Standard convention is to use M.lift (instead of liftM)
-- import qualified TheOtherPrelude.Monad.Kleisli as M
```

## See also

- Class system extension proposal - Makes this proposal worth reading at last
- Quantified contexts - Another important issue
- Functor hierarchy proposal - Making
`Monad m`

imply`Functor m`

(adopted by*The Other Prelude*). - Functor-Applicative-Monad Proposal - in essence the same proposal, perhaps showing this sentiment is more common than assumed
- If-then-else - Making
`if`

a function (partially adopted by*The Other Prelude*, we are silent on the bigger issue of sugar). - MissingH - Functions "missing" from the Haskell Prelude/libraries.
- MonadPlus reform proposal - Clarifies ambiguities around MonadPlus laws (adopted by
*The Other Prelude*) - Mathematical prelude discussion - A Numeric Prelude in good shape already. Will a merger be ever possible?
- Prelude extensions and List function suggestions - Unlike
*The Other Prelude*they*enhance*the Prelude. - Not just Maybe - Instead of writing inside a specific monad (i.e. Maybe) write functions generalized on (Monad m)=> where possible.