Difference between revisions of "Research papers/Functional pearls"

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:Andrew J. Kennedy. 1996.
:Andrew J. Kennedy. 1996.
;[http://research.microsoft.com/~nick/newtrans.pdf Undoing Dynamic Typing]
;[https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= Undoing Dynamic Typing]
:Nick Benton. 2008.
:Nick Benton. 2008.

Revision as of 21:15, 6 April 2021

Functional pearls are elegant, instructive examples of functional programming. They are supposed to be fun, and they teach important programming techniques and fundamental design principles. They traditionally appear in The Journal of Functional Programming, and at ICFP and affiliated workshops.

The history of functional pearls is covered by:

How to Write a Functional Pearl
Richard Bird. ICFP 2006.
Fifteen years of functional pearls
Richard Bird. ICFP 2006.
Strachey's functional pearl, forty years on
Mike Spivey, 2006.
On Barron and Strachey's Cartesian Product Function
Olivier Danvy and Michael Spivey, July 2007

There have been many functional pearls in JFP, and some others at ICFP and the Haskell Workshop. There is also a collection of them in The Fun of Programming.

The pearls tend to concentrate on:

  • Examples of program calculation and proof
  • Neat presentations of new or old data structures
  • Interesting applications and techniques

Some advice on writing pearls for JFP is available in this editorial.


Functional pearls online:

What You Needa Know about Yoneda: Profunctor Optics and the Yoneda Lemma
Guillaume Boisseau, Jeremy Gibbons. 2018.
A Pretty But Not Greedy Printer
Jean-Philippe Bernardy. 2017.
Algebraic Graphs with Class
Andrey Mokhov. 2017.
Ode on a Random Urn
Leonidas Lampropoulos, Antal Spector-Zabusky, Kenneth Foner. 2017.
Deriving a Probability Density Calculator
Wazim Mohammed Ismail, Chung-chieh Shan. 2016.
Queueing and Glueing for Optimal Partitioning
Shin-Cheng Mu, Yu-Hsi Chiang, Yu-Han Lyu. 2016.
Free Delivery
Jeremy Gibbons. 2016.
All Sorts of Permutations
Jan Christiansen, Nikita Danilenko, Sandra Dylus. 2016.
A Smart View on Datatypes
Mauro Jaskelioff, Exequiel Rivas. 2015.
Two Can Keep a Secret, If One of Them Uses Haskell
Alejandro Russo. 2015.
Solving the Snake Cube Puzzle in Haskell
Mark P. Jones. 2013.
When Maybe is not good enough
Michael Spivey. 2012.
Monoids: Theme and Variations
Brent Yorgey. 2012.
The Hough transform
Maarten Fokkinga. 2011.
Sorted. Verifying the Problem of the Dutch National Flag in Agda
Wouter Swierstra. 2011.
Typed Quote/Antiquote - Or: Compile-time Parsing
Ralf Hinze. 2011.
Every Bit Counts
Dimitrios Vytiniotis, Andrew Kennedy. 2010.
A Play on Regular Expressions
Sebastian Fischer. Frank Huch, Thomas Wilke. 2010.
Free Theorems Involving Type Constructor Classes
Janis Voigtländer. 2009.
Linear, Bounded, Functional Pretty-Printing
S. Doaitse Swierstra, Olaf Chitil. 2009.
Bidirectionalization for Free!
Janis Voigtländer. 2009.
A Domain-Specific Language for Experimental Game Theory
Eric Walkingshaw and Martin Erwig. 2009.
Functional Pearl: Data Types A La Carte
Wouter Swierstra, 2008
Functional Pearl: Streams and Unique Fixed Points
Ralf Hinze, ICFP 2008
Generic Discrimination: Sorting and Partitioning Unshared Data in Linear Time
Fritz Henglein. 2008
Much Ado about Two: A Pearl on Parallel Prefix Computation
Janis Voigtländer. 2008.
Clowns to the Left of me, Jokers to the Right: Dissecting Data Structures
Conor McBride. 2008.
Functional Pearl: The Great Escape: Or how to jump the border without getting caught
David Herman. 2007.
Scrap Your Zippers
Michael Adams. 2007. Superseded by the WGP 2010 version.
A type-correct, stack-safe, provably correct expression compiler in Epigram
James McKinna and Joel Wright. 2006.
Applicative Programming with Effects
Conor McBride and Ross Paterson. 2006.
Enumerating the rationals
Jeremy Gibbons, David Lester and Richard Bird. 2006.
A program to solve Sudoku
Richard Bird. 2006. (slides appear here, a Literate Haskell implementation by Graham Hutton based on this can be found here).
Probabilistic functional programming in Haskell
Martin Erwig and Steve Kollmansberger. 2006.
Marble mingling
Sharon Curtis. 2006.
Strong Types for Relational Databases
Alexandra Silva, Joost Visser. 2006. (Haskell Workshop)
Backtracking, interleaving, and terminating monad transformers
Oleg Kiselyov, Chung-chieh Shan, Daniel P. Friedman, Amr Sabry. 2005.
Scrap your Nameplate
James Cheney. 2005.
Pickler Combinators
Andrew Kennedy. 2004.
Composing fractals
Mark P. Jones. 2004.
Enumerating the strings of regular languages
M. Douglas McIlroy. 2004.
Calculating the Sieve of Eratosthenes
Lambert Meertens. Journal of Functional Programming, 14(6):759-763, 2004. (slides)
Functional satisfaction
Luc Maranget. 2004. (More info).
Implicit configurations--or, type classes reflect the values of types
Oleg Kiselyov, Chung-chieh Shan. 2004.
Global variables in Haskell
John Hughes. 2004. (JFP)
I am not a number -- I am a free variable
Conor McBride, James McKinna. 2004.
Inverting the Burrows Wheeler transform
Richard Bird and Shin-Cheng Mu. 2004. (Also here).
Parsing permutation phrases
Arthur Baars, Andres Loh and S. Doaitse Swierstra. 2004.
Concurrent distinct choices
Sergio Antoy and Michael Hanus. 2004.
Functional chart parsing of context-free grammars
Peter Ljunglf. 2004.
Type-Safe Cast
Stephanie Weirich. 2004.
Parallel Parsing Processes
Koen Claessen. 2004.
Derivation of a logarithmic time carry lookahead addition circuit
John O'Donnell and Gudula Runger. 2004. (ACM).
Linear lambda calculus and PTIME-completeness
Harry G. Mairson. 2004.
Producing all ideals of a forest, functionally
Jean-Christophe Filliatre and Francois Pottier. 2003.
Trouble shared is trouble halved
Richard Bird, Ralf Hinze. 2003
Formatting: a class act
Ralf Hinze. 2003.
A fresh look at binary search trees
Ralf Hinze. 2002.
The countdown problem
Graham Hutton. 2002.
Packrat parsing: simple, powerful, lazy, linear time, functional pearl
Bryan Ford. 2002.
Monads for Incremental Computing
Magnus Carlsson. 2002.
Haskell does it with class: Functorial unparsing
Ralf Hinze. 2001.

Unfolding pointer algorithms
Richard Bird. 2001.
Maximum marking problems
Richard Bird. 2001.
Weaving a web
Ralf Hinze and Johan Jeuring. 2001.
Normalization by evaluation with typed abstract syntax
Olivier Danvy, Morten Rhiger and Kristoffer H. Rose. 2001.
Do we need dependent types?
Daniel Fridlender and Mia Indrika. 2001.
Perfect trees and bit-reversal permutations, a revision of Technical Report IAI-TR-99-4
Ralf Hinze. 2000.
Combinators for breadth-first search
Michael Spivey. 2000
Breadth-First Numbering: Lessons from a Small Exercise in Algorithm Design
Chris Okasaki. 2000.
Deriving Backtracking Monad Transformers
Ralf Hinze. 2000.
Recursive subtyping revealed
Vladimir Gapeyev, Michael Y. Levin, Benjamin C. Pierce. 2000.
Composing contracts: an adventure in financial engineering
Simon Peyton Jones, Jean-Marc Eber, Julian Seward. 2000.
A poor man's concurrency monad
Koen Claessen. 1999.
Explaining binomial heaps
Ralf Hinze. 1999.
Power series, power serious
M. Douglas McIlroy. 1999.
Red-black trees in a functional setting
Chris Okasaki. 1999.
Proof-directed debugging
Robert Harper. 1999. (see also Proof-directed debugging: revisited for a first-order version).
A pointless derivation of radix sort
Jeremy Gibbons. 1999.
Monadic parsing in Haskell
Graham Hutton and Erik Meijer . 1998.
Polytypic unification
Patrik Jansson and Johan Jeuring. 1998.
Diets for fat sets
Martin Erwig. 1998.
Even higher-order functions for parsing or Why would anyone ever want to use a sixth-order function?
Chris Okasaki. 1998.
The Zipper
Gerard Huet. 1997. (See also The Haskell Wikibook).
Lazy wheel sieves and spirals of primes
Colin Runciman. 1997.
Three algorithms on Braun trees
Chris Okasaki. 1997.
The Third Homomorphism Theorem
Jeremy Gibbons. 1996.
Back to Basics: Deriving Representation Changers Functionally.
Graham Hutton, Erik Meijer. 1996.
Drawing Trees
Andrew J. Kennedy. 1996.
Undoing Dynamic Typing
Nick Benton. 2008.
Deriving Tidy Drawings of Trees
Jeremy Gibbons. 1996. (See also the research report).
Efficient Sets - A Balancing Act
Stephen Adams. 1993. (Data.Set).
Nondeterminism with Referential Transparency in Functional Programming Languages
F. Warren Burton; The Computer Journal, Volume 31, Issue 3, 1988, Pages 243-247.

Potential Pearls

Unpublished pearls.

α-conversion is easy
Thorsten Altenkirch. Unpublished draft.


These appear not to be available online, unfortunately. If you know where they live, please link, and move into the 'online' section!

Red-black trees with types
Stefan Kahrs. 2001. (JFP) (Code!)
On generating unique names
Lennart Augustsson, M Rittri, D Synek. 1994. (Rittri's homepage)
A Symmetric Set of Efficient List Operations.
Rob R. Hoogerwoord, 1992. (Hoogerwoord's homepage).
Finding celebrities: A lesson in functional programming
Richard Bird and Sharon Curtis. 2006.
On tiling a chessboard
Richard Bird. 2004. (ACM)
Meertens number
Richard Bird. 1998.
On merging and selection
Richard Bird. 1997. (See also More on Merging and Selection).
On building trees with minimum height
Richard Bird. 1997. (Bib).
The Last Tail.
Richard Bird. 1993. (Bib).
Two Greedy Algorithms
Richard Bird, 1992. (Bib).
On Removing Duplicates
Richard Bird. 1991. (Bib).