New monads

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It seems that the liftIO function from MonadIO can be generalized to access whatever the base of a transformer stack happens to be. So there is no need for a liftSTM, liftST, etc.

View New monads/MonadBase.


MonadLib is written by Iavor S. Diatchki.

It is a new version of the mtl package with base monads: Id, and Lift, and transformers ReaderT, WriterT, StateT, ExceptionT, ChoiceT, and ContT.

It also defines BaseM which is like MonadBase above.


A simple monad transformer to allow computations in the transformed monad to generate random values.

View New monads/MonadRandom.


A refinement of MonadRandom to integrate RandomGen's split function.

View at New monads/MonadRandomSplittable


The Maybe monad deserves a transformer, just like the other classic monads.

View New monads/MaybeT.


Here is a simple monad/monad transformer for computations which consume values from a (finite or infinite) supply. Note that due to pattern matching, running out of supply in a non-MonadZero monad will cause an error.

View New monads/MonadSupply.


Here is a modified state monad transformer for keeping track of undo/redo states automatically.

View New monads/MonadUndo.


This is a simple (trivial) monad transformer for supplying unique integer values to an algorithm.

View New monads/MonadUnique.


Here's an extension of the ST monad in which the references are ordered and showable (they list their creation index).

View New monads/MonadSTO.


There is a MonadNondet that when compiled with optimizations outperforms List.

Stateful nondeterminism

There is a Stateful nondeterminism monad for if you want to do nondeterministic computation with local states for each of your threads and a global state shared by all your threads.


Here is an extension of STM to easy interaction with IO after committing or retrying. Inspired by Simon P-J.

View New monads/MonadAdvSTM.


A monad transformer which combines State, Reader, and Error functionality to give the effect of a StateT monad which checks clock-time and stops the current computation if a period is exceeded.

darcs get



The Exit monad provides short-circuiting for complex program flow logic.

If you are using CPS (either explicitly, or in a CPS-based monad such as MonadCont or LogicT) only for this purpose, the Exit monad will likely simplify your program considerably.

Note: Now that a restriction on the Left type has been removed, the standard Either type can be used for this purpose. No separate Exit monad is needed anymore. For a monad transformer, use the version of EitherT defined in the either package.

View MonadExit.


Represents the class of monads such that

l == (msplit l >>= \(x,xs) -> return x `mplus` xs)

In English, msplit is a counterpart to "mplus".

Using this, you can redefine many of the functions which previously depended on lists: foldM, scanM, inits, tails, and some derived functions.

Note: A more general form of this monad, Data.Foldable, is now part of the standard libraries.

View New monads/MonadSplit.

Lazy and Strict variants

This section contains monads that have interesting Strict or Lazy properties.


This came up on the mailing list: Why is WriterT never lazy? The answer is it does not use lazy patterns with "~". So here is a more useful New monads/LazyWriterT that add two "~" to the definition of (>>=) and renames WriterT to LazyWriterT.

Strict RWS

This was contribute by John Meacham on on the haskell-cafe mailing list. New monads/UnboxedRWS is an strict variant of RWS.