Applications and libraries/Linguistics
Portals and other huge resorces
Natural language processing and combinatory logic
Applicative universal grammars
- A Haskell application for natural language parsing, based on Applicative Universal Grammar (AUG) is described in Mark P. Jones', Paul Hudak's and Sebastian Shaumyan's Using Types to Parse Natural Language. The Haskell source code given by the article is full, it can be run by Gofer, and after a few modification, by GHC too (transpose must be explictly imported from standard library module Data.List, and class Text renamed to Show).
- A more detailed description of the topic of this previous article described in Sebastian Shaumyan and Paul Hudak's Linguistic, Philosophical, and Pragmatic Aspects of Type-Directed Natural Language Parsing
- Bernard Paul Sypniewski's An Introduction to Applicative Universal Grammar (this link seems now broken, I hope only temporarily). As an article describing what AUG is, see also Shaumyan's Two Paradigms of Linguistics: The Semiotic versus Non-Semiotic Paradigm.
A general summary of modern semantic theories developed in the century is provided by Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics: an introduction.
Gary Hardegree's portal-rich page provides a lot of materials on logic and linguistics, among them
- The Axiomatic Theory of Truth grasping concepts like truth, quotations, paradoxes, liar's paradox
- Courses ranging from the introductory level to developed topics, e.g. Basic Categorial Grammar.
On natural languages relating to combinatory logic, see also
- Peter Steedman's Does Grammar Make Use of Bound Variables?
- Mark Hepple: The Grammar and Processing of Order and Dependency: a Categorial Approach
Game theoretic semantics
Game theoretic semantics presents an interesting concept of truth -- in another way than that of Tarski. Its connections to computer science and computer languages is described in Wikipedia's Game semantics article. Merlijn Sevenster's Game theoretical semantics and -logic is a good introductory material too.
Chiaki Ohkura's The Semantics of Metaphor in the Game Theoretic Semantics with at Least Two Coordination Equilibria article tries to catch the concept of metaphor.
Relatedness to linear logic
The Wikipedia article mentions also the relatedness of game theoretic semantics to linear logic. Philip Wadler's page on linear logic describes the topic and its relatedness to many concepts concerning Haskell. A taste of linear logic can serve as an introductory article.
Parsing natural languages
Gordon J. Pace: Monadic Compositional Parsing with Context Using Maltese as a Case Study, see its context too.