Books and tutorials covering many aspects of Haskell.
1 Language and library definition
Simon Peyton Jones: "Haskell 98 language and libraries: the Revised Report", Cambridge University Press, 2003, Hardback, 272 pages, ISBN 0521826144, £45.00
Haskell is the world's leading lazy functional programming language, widely used for teaching, research, and applications. The language continues to develop rapidly, but in 1998 the community decided to capture a stable snapshot of the language: Haskell 98. All Haskell compilers support Haskell 98, so practitioners and educators alike have a stable base for their work. This book constitutes the agreed definition of the Haskell 98, both the language itself and its supporting libraries. It has been considerably revised and refined since the original definition, and appears in print for the first time. It should be a standard reference work for anyone involved in research, teaching, or application of Haskell.
The entire language definition is also available online: Language and library specification. </DT>
- Graham Hutton: Programming in Haskell, Paperback: 200 pages, Cambridge University Press (January 31, 2007), English, ISBN 0521692695
Haskell is one of the leading languages for teaching functional programming, enabling students to write simpler and cleaner code, and to learn how to structure and reason about programs. This introduction is ideal for beginners: it requires no previous programming experience and all concepts are explained from first principles via carefully chosen examples. Each chapter includes exercises that range from the straightforward to extended projects, plus suggestions for further reading on more advanced topics. The author is a leading Haskell researcher and instructor, well-known for his teaching skills. The presentation is clear and simple, and benefits from having been refined and class-tested over several years. The result is a text that can be used with courses, or for self-learning. Features include: freely accessible Powerpoint slides for each chapter; solutions to exercises, and examination questions (with solutions) available to instructors; downloadable code that's fully compliant with the latest Haskell release.
- Paul Hudak: The Haskell School of Expression: Learning Functional Programming through Multimedia, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2000, 416 pp, 15 line diagrams, 75 exercises, Paperback $29.95, ISBN 0521644089, Hardback $74.95, ISBN 0521643384
This book teaches functional programming as a way of thinking and problem solving, using Haskell, the most popular purely functional language. Rather than using the conventional mathematical examples commonly found in other programming language textbooks, the author draws examples from multimedia applications, including graphics, animation, and computer music, thus rewarding the reader with working programs for inherently more interesting applications. Aimed at both beginning and advanced programmers, this tutorial begins with a gentle introduction to functional programming and moves rapidly on to more advanced topics. An underlying theme is the design and implementation of domain specific languages, using three examples: FAL (a Functional Animation Language), IRL (an Imperative Robot Language), and MDL (a Music Description Language). Details about programming in Haskell are presented in boxes throughout the text so they can be easily referred to and found quickly. The book's Web Site contains source files for all programs in the text, as well as the graphics libraries to run them under Windows and Linux platforms. It also contains PowerPoint slides useful for teaching a course using the textbook.
- Simon Thompson: Haskell: The Craft of Functional Programming, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, 507 pages, paperback, 1999. ISBN 0-201-34275-8.
The second edition of Haskell: The Craft of Functional Programming is essential reading for beginners to functional programming and newcomers to the Haskell programming language. The emphasis is on the process of crafting programs and the text contains many examples and running case studies, as well as advice an program design, testing, problem solving and how to avoid common pitfalls. Building on the strengths of the first edition, the book includes many new and improved features:
- Complete coverage of Haskell 98, the standard version of Haskell which will be stable and supported by implementations for years to come.
- An emphasis on software engineering principles, encouraging a disciplined approach to building reusable libraries of software components.
- Detailed coverage of the Hugs interpreter with an appendix covering other implementations.
- A running case study of pictures emphasizes the built-in functions which appear in the standard prelude and libraries. It is also used to give an early preview of some of the more complex language features, such as high-order functions.
- List comprehensions and the standard functions over lists are covered before recursion.
- Early coverage of polymorphism supporting the "toolkit" approach and encouraging the resuse of built-in functions and types.
- Extensive reference material containing details of further reading in books, journals and on the World Wide Web.
- Accompanying Web Site supporting the book, containing all the program code, further teaching materials and other useful resources.
This books introduces Haskell at a level appropriate for those with little or no prior experience of functional programming. The emphasis is on the process of crafting programs, solving problems, and avoiding common errors.
- Richard Bird: Introduction to Functional Programming using Haskell, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall Press, 1998, 460 pp., ISBN 0-13-484346-0.
From the cover: After the success of the first edition, Introduction to Functional Programming using Haskell has been thoroughly updated and revised to provide a complete grounding in the principles and techniques of programming with functions. The second edition uses the popular language Haskell to express functional programs. There are new chapters on program optimisation, abstract datatypes in a functional setting, and programming in a monadic style. There are completely new case studies, and many new exercises. As in the first edition, there is an emphasis on the fundamental techniques for reasoning about functional programs, and for deriving them systematically from their specifications. The book is self-contained, assuming no prior knowledge of programming, and is suitable as an introductory undergraduate text for first- or second-year students.
- Antony Davie: An Introduction to Functional Programming Systems Using Haskell, Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-521-25830-8 (hardback). ISBN 0-521-27724-8 (paperback).
Cover: Functional programming is a style of programming that has become increasingly popular during the past few years. Applicative programs have the advantage of being almost immediately expressible as functional descriptions; they can be proved correct and transformed through the referential transparency property. This book presents the basic concepts of functional programming, using the language Haskell for examples. The author incorporates a discussion of lambda calculus and its relationship with Haskell, exploring the implications for raparallelism. Contents: SASL for Beginners / Examples of SASL Programming / More Advanced Applicative Programming Techniques / Lambda Calculus / The Relationship Between Lambda Calculus and SASL / Program Transformation and Efficiency / Correctness, Equivalence and Program Verification / Landin's SECD Machine and Related Implementations / Further Implementation Techniques / Special Purpose Hardware / The Applicative Style of Semantics / Other Applicative Languages / Implications for Parallelism / Functional Programming in Von Neumann Languages
- Fethi Rabhi and Guy Lapalme: Algorithms: A functional programming approach, Addison-Wesley, 235 pages, paperback, 1999. ISBN 0-201-59604-0
The authors challenge more traditional methods of teaching algorithms by using a functional programming context, with Haskell as an implementation language. This leads to smaller, clearer and more elegant programs which enable the programmer to understand the algorithm more quickly and to use that understanding to explore alternative solutions.
- Most chapters are self-contained and can be taught independently from each other.
- All programs are in Haskell'98 and provided on a WWW site.
- End of chapter exercises throughout.
- Comprehensive index and bibliographical notes.
The book is organised as a classic algorithms book according to topics such as Abstract Data Types, sorting and searching. It uses a succession of practical programming examples to develop in the reader problem-solving skills which can be easily transferred to other language paradigms. It also introduces the idea of capturing algorithmic design strategies (e.g. Divide-and-Conquer, Dynamic Programming) through higher-order functions.
The book is intended for computer science students taking algorithms and/or (basic or advanced) functional programming courses.
- Jeremy Gibbons and Oege de Moor (eds.): The Fun of Programming,Palgrave, 2002, 288 pages. ISBN 0333992857.
In this textbook, leading researchers give tutorial expositions on the current state of the art of functional programming. The text is suitable for an undergraduate course immediately following an introduction to functional programming, and also for self-study. All new concepts are illustrated by plentiful examples, as well as exercises. A website gives access to accompanying software.
- Simon Peyton Jones: Implementation of Functional Programming Language], 500 pages, Prentice-Hall, 1987. ISBN 0134533259.
This 1987 book is now out of print, but it is now available online in its entirety.
- Simon Peyton Jones, David Lester: Implementing Functional Languages, Paperback: 288 pages, Prentice Hall (August 1992), English, ISBN 0137219520
The book is out of print. The full sources and a postscript version are available for free. This book gives a practical approach to understanding the implementations of non-strict functional languages using lazy graph reduction. The emphasis of the book is on building working prototypes of several functional language implementations (template- instantiation, G-Machine, TIM, parallel G-Machine. In each case the authors provide a complete working prototype of a particular implementation, and then lead the reader through a sequence of improvements which expand its scope. This enables readers to develop, modify and experiment with their own implementations and for use as a source of practical laboratory work material.
- Simon Thompson: Type Theory and Functional Programming, Addison-Wesley, 1991. ISBN 0-201-41667-0. Hardcover: 388 pages.
Now out of print, the original version is available here. Preface: Constructive Type theory has been a topic of research interest to computer scientists, mathematicians, logicians and philosophers for a number of years. For computer scientists it provides a framework which brings together logic and programming languages in a most elegant and fertile way: program development and verification can proceed within a single system. Viewed in a different way, type theory is a functional programming language with some novel features, such as the totality of all its functions, its expressive type system allowing functions whose result type depends upon the value of its input, and sophisticated modules and abstract types whose interfaces can contain logical assertions as well as signature information. A third point of view emphasizes that programs (or functions) can be extracted from proofs in the logic.
- Claudio Cesar de Sá and Marcio Ferreira da Silva: Haskell: Uma Abordagem Prática, Novatec Editora Ltda., 2006, 296 pages, ISBN 85-7522-095-0. The price is R$ 62,00 (in Reais). Language: Portugese
This book is being published by Novatec Editora Ltda. You can access directly here.
This book brings a comprehensive vision of Haskell language. No knowledge in another functional programming language is expected. In addition, no background in programming is required. The book presents issues from basic up to an intermediate level; it also includes some advanced aspects of Haskell. The title of the book, Haskell: Uma Abordagem Prática, in English Haskell: A Practical Approach, is the essence of the book. The result is a text that can be used in courses of programming and paradigms languages. Finally, many practical examples can be found throughout the book. An additional page containing comments on this book is found here: . Other data as bibtex entry, cover's book in several formats, Winhugs-2001 for download, and so on. This page is Portugese.
- Blas C. Ruiz, Francisco Gutiérrez, Pablo Guerrero y José E. Gallardo. Razonando con Haskell, Thompson 2004. ISBN 84-9732-277-0. Language: Spanish
Descripción El objetivo principal de este libro es el de servir como libro de texto de las asignaturas de Programación Declarativa correspondientes a los estudios de Informática o Ciencias de la Computación, y otras ciencias en general ( Matemáticas, Física, etc.). El texto es fruto de una larga experiencia docente de los autores dentro de las distintas asignaturas que desarrollan la Programación Funcional en distintas titulaciones de la Universidad de Málaga. Aún así, su lectura no queda condicionada a un conocimiento previo sobre lenguajes de programación (de computadores), ni sobre Informática. De esta forma, el libro puede ser utilizado por todo aquel que desee tener un conocimiento amplio sobre la Programación Funcional.
- Haskell Primer: The first functional language to learn. Jun Mukai. In Japanese. Yen 2,730.
- Practical Haskell Programming, Minero Aoki and Nobuo Yamashita. A primer on functional programming for real world programs. In Japanese. Yen 2,940.
- Purely Functional Data Structures
- Paul Hudak: The Haskell School of Expression: Learning Functional Programming through Multimedia, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2000, 416 pp, 15 line diagrams, 75 exercises, Paperback $29.95, ISBN 0521644089, Hardback $74.95, ISBN 0521643384
- Chris Okasaki, 232 pp., Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-63124-6
From the cover:
Most books on data structures assume an imperative language like C or C++. However, data structures for these languages do not always translate well to functional languages such as Standard ML, Haskell, or Scheme. This book describes data structures and data structure design techniques from the point of view of functional languages. It includes code for a wide assortment both of classical data structures and of data structures developed exclusively for functional languages.This handy reference for professional programmers working with functional languages can also be used as a tutorial or for self-study. Haskell source code for the book
(Roman V. Dushkin. Functional Programming in Haskell. Moscow: DMK Press, 2006. 608 pp. ISBN 5-94074-335-8)
Данная книга является первым в России изданием, рассматривающим функциональное программирование в полном объеме, достаточном для понимания новичку и для использования книги в качестве справочного пособия теми, кто уже использует парадигму функционального программирования в своей практике. Изучение прикладных основ показано на примере языка Haskell, на сегодняшний день являющегося самым мощным и развитым инструментом функционального программирования. Издание можно использовать и в качестве учебника по функциональному программированию, и в качестве самостоятельного учебного пособия по смежным дисциплинам, в первую очередь по комбинаторной логике и ?-исчислению. Также книга будет интересна тем, кто всерьез занимается изучением новых компьютерных технологий, искусственного интеллекта и экспертных систем. К книге прилагается компакт-диск с транслятором Haskell, а также различными библиотеками к нему, дополнительными утилитами и рабочими примерами программ, рассмотренных в книге.
De pe coperta:
Cartea este simultan un manual introductiv de Haskell si o carte auxiliara pentru studentii de la cursul de limbaje formale. Veti avea satisfactia cunoasterii unui limbaj modern (...) in care algoritmul de sortare Quicksort se scrie pe 6 randuri, asa cum se poate vedea de altfel si in imaginea de pe coperta I. (...) Cartea cuprinde o serie de capitole folosite la Universitatea Bacau in calitate de auxiliare de laborator la disciplina Limbaje Formale si Automate.
- Benjamin C. Pierce. 645 pages, The MIT Press, (February 1, 2002), English. ISBN 0262162091
From the cover:
A type system is a syntactic method for automatically checking the absence of certain erroneous behaviors by classifying program phrases according to the kinds of values they compute. The study of type systems--and of programming languages from a type-theoretic perspective-has important applications in software engineering, language design, high-performance compilers, and security. This text provides a comprehensive introduction both to type systems in computer science and to the basic theory of programming languages. The approach is pragmatic and operational; each new concept is motivated by programming examples and the more theoretical sections are driven by the needs of implementations. Each chapter is accompanied by numerous exercises and solutions, as well as a running implementation, available via the Web. Dependencies between chapters are explicitly identified, allowing readers to choose a variety of paths through the material. The core topics include the untyped lambda-calculus, simple type systems, type reconstruction, universal and existential polymorphism, subtyping, bounded quantification, recursive types, kinds, and type operators. Extended case studies develop a variety of approaches to modeling the features of object-oriented languages.
- Advanced Topics in Types and Programming Languages
- Benjamin C. Pierce (Editor), Hardcover: 608 pages, The MIT Press (December 23, 2004), Language: English, ISBN 0262162288.
From the cover:
The study of type systems for programming languages now touches many areas of computer science, from language design and implementation to software engineering, network security, databases, and analysis of concurrent and distributed systems. This book offers accessible introductions to key ideas in the field, with contributions by experts on each topic. The topics covered include precise type analyses, which extend simple type systems to give them a better grip on the run time behavior of systems; type systems for low-level languages; applications of types to reasoning about computer programs; type theory as a framework for the design of sophisticated module systems; and advanced techniques in ML-style type inference. Advanced Topics in Types and Programming Languages builds on Benjamin Pierce's Types and Programming Languages (MIT Press, 2002); most of the chapters should be accessible to readers familiar with basic notations and techniques of operational semantics and type systems -- the material covered in the first half of the earlier book. Advanced Topics in Types and Programming Languages can be used in the classroom and as a resource for professionals. Most chapters include exercises, ranging in difficulty from quick comprehension checks to challenging extensions, many with solutions.
- Programming Languages: Theory and Practice
- Robert Harper. (Draft).
A working draft of a planned book on the theoretical foundations of practical programming languages.
- Proofs and Types
- By Jean-Yves Girard, translated and with appendices by Paul Taylor and Yves Lafont. Based on a short graduate course on typed lambda-calculus given at the Universit� Paris VII in the autumn term of 1986-7.
- Programming language theory texts online
- Collection of online programming language theory texts maintained by Frank Atanassow
3.1 Introductions to Haskell
These are the recommended places to start learning, short of buying a textbook.
3.1.1 Best places to start
- Yet Another Haskell Tutorial
- By Hal Daume III et al. A recommended tutorial for Haskell that is still under construction but covers already much ground. Also a classic text. Now available as a wikibook.
- Haskell Wikibook
- A communal effort by several authors to produce the definitive Haskell textbook. Its very much a work in progress at the moment, and contributions are welcome.
- Write Yourself a Scheme in 48 Hours in Haskell
- A Haskell Tutorial, by Jonathan Tang. Most Haskell tutorials on the web seem to take a language-reference-manual approach to teaching. They show you the syntax of the language, a few language constructs, and then have you construct a few simple functions at the interactive prompt. The "hard stuff" of how to write a functioning, useful program is left to the end, or sometimes omitted entirely. This tutorial takes a different tack. You'll start off with command-line arguments and parsing, and progress to writing a fully-functional Scheme interpreter that implements a good-sized subset of R5RS Scheme. Along the way, you'll learn Haskell's I/O, mutable state, dynamic typing, error handling, and parsing features. By the time you finish, you should be fairly fluent in both Haskell and Scheme.
3.1.2 More tutorials
- A Gentle Introduction to Haskell
- By Paul Hudak, John Peterson, and Joseph H. Fasel. The title is misleading. Some knowledge of another functional programming language is expected. The emphasis is on the type system and those features which are really new in Haskell (compared to other functional programming languages). A classic, but not for the faint of heart (its not so gentle). Also available in French and Russian.
- H-99: Ninety-Nine Haskell Problems
- A collection of programming puzzles, with Haskell solutions. Solving these is a great way to get into Haskell programming.
- Haskell Tutorial for C Programmers
- By Eric Etheridge. From the intro: "This tutorial assumes that the reader is familiar with C/C++, Python, Java, or Pascal. I am writing for you because it seems that no other tutorial was written to help students overcome the difficulty of moving from C/C++, Java, and the like to Haskell."
- Beginning Haskell
- Online Haskell Course
- By Ralf Hinze (in German).
- Tutorial Papers in Functional Programming.
- A collection of links to other Haskell tutorials, from John Hughes.
- Two Dozen Short Lessons in Haskell
- By Rex Page. A draft of a textbook on functional programming, available by ftp. It calls for active participation from readers by omitting material at certain points and asking the reader to attempt to fill in the missing information based on knowledge they have already acquired. The missing information is then supplied on the reverse side of the page.
- By Damir Medak and Gerhard Navratil. The fundamentals of functional languages for beginners.
- Video Lectures
- Lectures (in English) by Jürgen Giesl. About 30 hours in total, and great for learning Haskell. The lectures are 2005-SS-FP.V01 through 2005-SS-FP.V26. Videos 2005-SS-FP.U01 through 2005-SS-FP.U11 are exercise answer sessions, so you probably don't want those.
- Albert's Functional Programming Course
- A 15 lesson introduction to most aspects of Haskell.
- Introduction to Haskell
- By Chris Dutton, An "attempt to bring the ideas of functional programming to the masses here, and an experiment in finding ways to make it easy and interesting to follow".
- An Introduction to Haskell
- A brief introduction, by Brian Howard.
- Introduction to Haskell
- By Isaac Jones (2003).
- Translating Haskell into English
- By Shannon Behrens, a glimpse of the Zen of Haskell, without requiring that they already be Haskell converts.
- Haskell for Perl Programmers
- Brief introduction to Haskell, with a view to what perl programmers are interested in
3.2 Motivation for using Haskell
- Why Functional Programming Matters
- By John Hughes, The Computer Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1989, pp. 98 - 107. Also in: David A. Turner (ed.): Research Topics in Functional Programming, Addison-Wesley, 1990, pp. 17 - 42.
Exposes the advantages of functional programming languages. Demonstrates how higher-order functions and lazy evaluation enable new forms of modularization of programs.
- Why Haskell matters
- Discussion of the advantages of using Haskell in particular. An excellent article.
- Higher-order + Polymorphic = Reusable
- By Simon Thompson. Unpublished, May 1997.
Abstract: This paper explores how certain ideas in object oriented languages have their correspondents in functional languages. In particular we look at the analogue of the iterators of the C++ standard template library. We also give an example of the use of constructor classes which feature in Haskell 1.3 and Gofer.
- Explore functional programming with Haskell
- Introduction to the benefits of functional programming in Haskell by Bruce Tate.
3.3 Blog articles
There are a large number of tutorials covering diverse Haskell topics published as blogs. Some of the best of these articles are collected here:
3.4 Practical Haskell
These tutorials examine using Haskell to writing complex real-world applications
- Tackling the awkward squad: monadic input/output, concurrency, exceptions, and foreign-language calls in Haskell
- Simon Peyton Jones. Presented at the 2000 Marktoberdorf Summer School. In "Engineering theories of software construction", ed Tony Hoare, Manfred Broy, Ralf Steinbruggen, IOS Press, ISBN 1-58603-1724, 2001, pp47-96. The standard reference for monadic IO in GHC/Haskell.
Abstract:Functional programming may be beautiful, but to write real applications we must grapple with awkward real-world issues: input/output, robustness, concurrency, and interfacing to programs written in other languages.
- Hitchhikers Guide to the Haskell
- Tutorial for C/Java/OCaml/... programers by Dmitry Astapov. From the intro: "This text intends to introduce the reader to the practical aspects of Haskell from the very beginning (plans for the first chapters include: I/O, darcs, Parsec, QuickCheck, profiling and debugging, to mention a few)".
- Haskell I/O inside: Down the Rabbit's Hole
- By Bulat Ziganshin (2006), a comprehensive tutorial on using IO monad.
- A Guide to Haskell's Foreign Function Interface
- A guide to using the foreign function interface extension, using the rich set of functions in the Foreign libraries, design issues, and FFI preprocessors.
- Haskell IO for imperative programmers
- A short introduction to IO from the perspective of an imperative programmer.
- Roll your own IRC bot
- This tutorial is designed as a practical guide to writing real world code in Haskell and hopes to intuitively motivate and introduce some of the advanced features of Haskell to the novice programmer, including monad transformers. Our goal is to write a concise, robust and elegant IRC bot in Haskell.
- Developing Gnome Apps with Glade
- For the absolute beginner in both Glade and Gtk2Hs and covers the basics of Glade and how to access a .glade file and widgets in Gtk2Hs. Estimated learning time: 2 hours.
- Applications of Functional Programming
- Colin Runciman and David Wakeling (ed.), UCL Press, 1995, ISBN 1-85728-377-5 HB. From the cover:
This book is unique in showcasing real, non-trivial applications of functional programming using the Haskell language. It presents state-of-the-art work from the FLARE project and will be an invaluable resource for advanced study, research and implementation.
3.5 Reference material
- A growing list of Haskell tutorials on a diverse range of topics
- Available on this wiki
- A Tour of the Haskell Prelude (basic functions)
- By Bernie Pope and Arjan van IJzendoorn.
- Tour of the Haskell Syntax
- By Arjan van IJzendoorn.
- Haskell Reference
- By Miloslav Nic.
- A tour of the Haskell Monad functions
- By Henk-Jan van Tuyl.
- Useful Haskell functions
- An explanation for beginners of many Haskell functions that are predefined in the Haskell Prelude.
- Haskell's Standard List Functions
- A tour of the standard Haskell functions, directed by what you want to achieve
- Documentation for the standard libraries
- Complete documentation of the standard Haskell libraries.
- Haskell idioms
- A collection of articles describing some common Haskell idioms. Often quite advanced.
- Useful idioms
- A collection of short, useful Haskell idioms.
- Programming guidelines
- Some Haskell programming and style conventions.
- Lightning Tour of Haskell
- By John Hughes, as part of a Chalmers programming course
- The Little Haskeller
- By Cordelia Hall and John Hughes. 9. November 1993, 26 pages. An introduction using the Chalmers Haskell B interpreter (hbi). Beware that it relies very much on the user interface of hbi which is quite different for other Haskell systems, and the tutorials cover Haskell 1.2 , not Haskell 98.
- Functional Programming
- By Jeroen Fokker, 1995. (153 pages, 600 KB). Textbook for learning functional programming with Gofer (an older implementation of Haskell). Here without Chapters 6 and 7.
3.6 Comparisons to other languages
Articles constrasting feature of Haskell with other languages.
- Haskell versus Scheme
- Mark C. Chu-Carroll, Haskell and Scheme: Which One and Why?
- Comparing Haskell and Python
- A short overview of similarities and differences between Haskell and Python.
- Monads in OCaml
- Syntax extension for monads in OCaml
- An algorithm for RELAX NG validation
- by James Clark (of RELAX NG fame). Describes an algorithm for validating an XML document against a RELAX NG schema, uses Haskell to describe the algorithm. The algorithm in Haskell and Java is then discussed here.
- Haskell + FastCGI versus Ruby on Rails
- A short blog entry documenting performance results with ruby on rails and Haskell with fastcgi
- Haskell vs. Ada vs. C++ vs. Awk vs. ..., An Experiment in Software Prototyping Productivity (postscript)
- Paul Hudak and Mark P. Jones, 16 pages.
Description of the results of an experiment in which several conventional programming languages, together with the functional language Haskell, were used to prototype a Naval Surface Warfare Center requirement for Geometric Region Servers. The resulting programs and development metrics were reviewed by a committee chosen by the US Navy. The results indicate that the Haskell prototype took significantly less time to develop and was considerably more concise and easier to understand than the corresponding prototypes written in several different imperative languages, including Ada and C++.
- A Comparative Study of Language Support for Generic Programming (pdf)
- Ronald Garcia, Jaakko Jrvi, Andrew Lumsdaine, Jeremy G. Siek, and Jeremiah Willcock. In Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGPLAN conference on Object-oriented programming, systems, languages, and applications (OOPSLA'03), October 2003.
An interesting comparison of generic programming support across languages, including: Haskell, SML, C++, Java, C#. Haskell supports all constructs described in the paper -- the only language to do so.
- Functional Programming in the Real World
- A list of functional programs applied to real-world tasks. The main criterion for being real-world is that the program was written primarily to perform some task, not primarily to experiment with functional programming. Functional is used in the broad sense that includes both `pure' programs (no side effects) and `impure' (some use of side effects). Languages covered include CAML, Clean, Erlang, Haskell, Miranda, Scheme, SML, and others.
- Lisp in Haskell
- Writing A Lisp Interpreter In Haskell, a tutorial
3.7 Teaching Haskell
- Where do I begin? A problem solving approach to teaching functional programming
- By Simon Thompson. In Krzysztof Apt, Pieter Hartel, and Paul Klint, editors, First International Conference on Declarative Programming Languages in Education. Springer-Verlag, September 1997.
Abstract: This paper introduces a problem solving method for teaching functional programming, based on Polya's `How To Solve It', an introductory investigation of mathematical method. We first present the language independent version, and then show in particular how it applies to the development of programs in Haskell. The method is illustrated by a sequence of examples and a larger case study.
- Functional programming through the curriculum
- By Simon Thompson and Steve Hill. In Pieter H. Hartel and Rinus Plasmeijer, editors, Functional Programming Languages in Education, LNCS 1022, pages 85-102. Springer-Verlag, December 1995.
Abstract: This paper discusses our experience in using a functional language in topics across the computer science curriculum. After examining the arguments for taking a functional approach, we look in detail at four case studies from different areas: programming language semantics, machine architectures, graphics and formal languages.
- The Risks and Benefits of Teaching Purely Functional Programming in First Year
- By Manuel M. T. Chakravarty and Gabriele Keller. Journal of Functional Programming 14(1), pp 113-123, 2004. An earlier version of this paper was presented at Functional and Declarative Programming in Education (FDPE02).
Abstract We argue that teaching purely functional programming as such in freshman courses is detrimental to both the curriculum as well as to promoting the paradigm. Instead, we need to focus on the more general aims of teaching elementary techniques of programming and essential concepts of computing. We support this viewpoint with experience gained during several semesters of teaching large first-year classes (up to 600 students) in Haskell. These classes consisted of computer science students as well as students from other disciplines. We have systematically gathered student feedback by conducting surveys after each semester. This article contributes an approach to the use of modern functional languages in first year courses and, based on this, advocates the use of functional languages in this setting.
3.8 Using monads
See also the Monad HaskellWiki page.
3.8.1 Recommended tutorials
- All About Monads
- By Jeff Newbern. This tutorial aims to explain the concept of a monad and its application to functional programming in a way that is easy to understand and useful to beginning and intermediate Haskell programmers. Familiarity with the Haskell language is assumed, but no prior experience with monads is required.
- Monad Transformers Step by Step
- Martin Grabmüller: a small tutorial on using monad transformers. In contrast to others found on the web, it concentrates on using them, not on their implementation.
3.8.2 More tutorials
- The Haskell Programmer's Guide to the IO Monad - Don't Panic.
- Stefan Klinger. This report scratches the surface of category theory, an abstract branch of algebra, just deep enough to find the monad structure. It seems well written.
- A (hopefully) painless introduction to monads
- By Dan Bensen. A brief beginner's guide to using the IO monad in Haskell.
- What the hell are Monads?
- By Noel Winstanley. A basic introduction to monads, monadic programming and IO. This introduction is presented by means of examples rather than theory, and assumes a little knowledge of Haskell.
- Monads for the Working Haskell Programmer -- a short tutorial
- By Theodore Norvell.
- You Could Have Invented Monads! (And Maybe You Already Have.)
- A short tutorial on monads, introduced from a pragmatic approach, with less category theory references
- Systematic Design of Monads
- John Hughes & Magnus Carlsson. Many useful monads can be designed in a systematic way, by successively adding facilities to a trivial monad. The capabilities that can be added in this way include state, exceptions, backtracking, and output. Here we give a brief description of the trivial monad, each kind of extension, and sketches of some interesting operations that each monad supports.
- Meet Bob The Monadic Lover
- by Andrea Rossato. A by-the-author-supposed-to-be funny and short introduction to Monads, with code but without any reference to category theory: what monads look like and what they are useful for, from the perspective of a ... lover. (There is also the slightly more serious The Monadic Way by the same author.)
- Monstrous Monads
- Andrew Pimlott's humourous introduction to monads, using the metaphor of "monsters".
See also Research papers/Monads and arrows
3.9 Workshops on advanced funtional programming
- Advanced Functional Programming: 1st International Spring School on Advanced Functional Programming Techniques, Bastad, Sweden, May 24 - 30, 1995. Tutorial Text (Lecture Notes in Computer Science)
- Advanced Functional Programming: 2nd International School, Olympia, Wa, Usa, August 26-30, 1996 Tutorial Text (Lecture Notes in Computer Science)
- Advanced Functional Programming: 3rd International School, AFP'98, Braga, Portugal, September 12-19, 1998, Revised Lectures (Lecture Notes in Computer Science)
- Advanced Functional Programming: 4th International School, AFP 2002, Oxford, UK, August 19-24, 2002, Revised Lectures (Lecture Notes in Computer Science)
- Advanced Functional Programming: 5th International School, AFP 2004, Tartu, Estonia, August 14-21, 2004, Revised Lectures (Lecture Notes in Computer Science)
Some books and links listed here can be found also in the articles of Theoretical foundations category
- Practical Foundations of Mathematics
- Paul Taylor. Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 0-521-63107-6, xii+576 pages, September 2000.
- Toposes, Triples and Theories
- Michael Barr and Charles Wells. The revised version of their formerly Springer Verlag published book is online for free download. Note that they use the name triple instead of monad.
5 Research papers
- Haskell research papers are collected on haskell.org
- Also, an online bibliography of Haskell research at ReadScheme.org
6 Formal Languages and Automata, Grammars and Parsing using Haskell
- Grammars and Parsing by Johan Jeuring and Doaitse Swierstra is available:
- 3.1 The type 'Parser' pp 47
- 3.2 Elementary parsers pp 49
- 3.3 Parser combinator pp 52
- 5.1 Finite state automata pp 85