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== Haskell Cookbook ==
* [[Cookbook/Compilers and interpreters|Haskell compilers and interpreters]]
* [[Cookbook/Numbers|Numbers]]
* [[Cookbook/Lists and strings|Lists and strings]]
* [[Cookbook/Other data structures|Other data structures]]
* [[Cookbook/Dates And Time|Dates and time]]
* [[Cookbook/Pattern matching|Pattern matching]]
* [[Cookbook/Interactivity|Interactivity]]
* [[Cookbook/Files|Files]]
* [[Cookbook/Network programming|Network programming]]
* [[Cookbook/XML|XML]]
* [[Cookbook/Databases access|Databases access]]
* [[Cookbook/Graphical user interfaces|Graphical user interfaces]]
* [[Cookbook/PDF files|PDF files]]
* [[Cookbook/FFI|FFI]]
* [[Cookbook/Testing|Testing]]
== Similar projects for other programming languages ==
* [http://cl-cookbook.sourceforge.net/ Common Lisp Cookbook]
* [http://pleac.sourceforge.net/ PLEAC]
* [http://www.zenspider.com/Languages/Ruby/Cookbook/index.html Ruby Cookbook]
* [http://schemecookbook.org/Cookbook/WebHome Scheme Cookbook]
* [http://fssnip.net/ F# Snippets]
[[Category:How to]]
[[Category:How to]]
'''We need to start a Haskell centered cookbook (aka, not a [http://pleac.sourceforge.net/ PLEAC] clone)
This page is based on the Scheme Cookbook at
== Prelude ==
A lot of functions are defined in the "[http://www.haskell.org/hoogle/?q=Prelude Prelude]". Also, if you ever want to search for a function, based on the name, type or module, take a look at the excellent [http://www.haskell.org/hoogle Hoogle]. This is for a lot of people a must-have while debugging and writing Haskell programs.
== GHCi/Hugs ==
=== GHCi interaction ===
To start GHCi from a command prompt, simply type `ghci'
$ ghci
___ ___ _
/ _ \ /\ /\/ __(_)
/ /_\// /_/ / / | | GHC Interactive, version 6.6, for Haskell 98.
/ /_\\/ __ / /___| | http://www.haskell.org/ghc/
\____/\/ /_/\____/|_| Type :? for help.
Loading package base ... linking ... done.
[http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Prelude.html Prelude] is the "base" library of Haskell.
To create variables at the GHCi prompt, use `let'
Prelude> let x = 5
Prelude> x
Prelude> let y = 3
Prelude> y
Prelude> x + y
`let' is also the way to create simple functions at the GHCi prompt
Prelude> let fact n = product [1..n]
Prelude> fact 5
== Types ==
To check the type of an expression or function, use the command `:t'
Prelude> :t x
x :: Integer
Prelude> :t "Hello"
"Hello" :: [Char]
Haskell has the following types defined in the [http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Prelude.html Standard Prelude].
Int -- bounded, word-sized integers
Integer -- unbounded integers
Double -- floating point values
Char -- characters
String -- equivalent to [Char], strings are lists of characters
() -- the unit type
Bool -- booleans
[a] -- lists
(a,b) -- tuples / product types
Either a b -- sum types
Maybe a -- optional values
== Strings ==
=== Input ===
Strings can be read as input using [http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Prelude.html#v%3AgetLine getLine].
Prelude> getLine
Foo bar baz
"Foo bar baz"
=== Output ===
Strings can be output in a number of different ways.
Prelude> putStr "Foo"
As you can see, [http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Prelude.html#v%3AputStr putStr] does not include the newline character `\n'. We can either use putStr like this:
Prelude> putStr "Foo\n"
Or use [http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Prelude.html#v%3AputStrLn putStrLn], which is already in the Standard Prelude
Prelude> putStrLn "Foo"
We can also use [http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Prelude.html#v%3Aprint print] to print a string, '''including the quotation marks.'''
Prelude> print "Foo"
=== Concatenation ===
Concatenation of strings (or any other list) is done with the `++' operator.
Prelude> "foo" ++ "bar"
=== Regular expressions ===
Regular expressions are useful in some situations where the Data.List
library is unwieldy. Posix style regular expressions are available in
the core libraries, and a suite of other regular expression libraries
are [also available], including PCRE and TRE-style regexes.
Bryan O'Sullivan has written [http://www.serpentine.com/blog/2007/02/27/a-haskell-regular-expression-tutorial/ a nice introduction] to using the new regex libraries.
=== Interpolation ===
=== Performance ===
For high performance requirements (where you would typically consider
C), consider using Data.ByteString.
=== Unicode (?) ===
== Numbers ==
Numbers in Haskell can be of the type <hask>Int, Integer, Float, Double, or Rational</hask>.
=== Random numbers ===
main = do
gen <- getStdGen
ns <- randoms gen
print $ take 10 ns
=== Binary representation of numbers ===
import Data.Bits
import Data.List (foldl')
-- Extract a range of bits, most-significant first
bitRange :: Bits a => a -> Int -> Int -> [Bool]
bitRange n lo hi = foldl' (\l -> \x -> testBit n x : l) [] [lo..hi]
-- Extract all bits, most-significant first
bits :: Bits a => a -> [Bool]
bits n = bitRange n 0 (bitSize n - 1)
-- Display a number in binary, including leading zeroes.
-- c.f. Numeric.showHex
showBits :: Bits a => a -> ShowS
showBits = showString . map (\b -> if b then '1' else '0') . bits
== Dates and time ==
Use [http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/System-Time.html#v%3AgetClockTime System.Time.getClockTime] to get a properly formatted date stamp.
Prelude> System.Time.getClockTime
Wed Feb 21 20:05:35 CST 2007
=== CPU time ===
Use [http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/System-CPUTime.html#v%3AgetCPUTime System.CPUTime.getCPUTime] to get the CPU time in picoseconds.
You can time a computation like this
getCPUTimeDouble :: IO Double
getCPUTimeDouble = do t <- System.CPUTime.getCPUTime; return (fromInteger t) * 1e-12
main = do
t1 <- getCPUTimeDouble
print (fib 30)
t2 <- getCPUTimeDouble
print (t2-t1)
== Lists ==
In Haskell, lists are what Arrays are in most other languages. Haskell has all of the general list manipulation functions, see also <hask>Data.List</hask>.
Prelude> head [1,2,3]
Prelude> tail [1,2,3]
Prelude> length [1,2,3]
Prelude> init [1,2,3]
Prelude> last [1,2,3]
Furthermore, Haskell supports some neat concepts.
===Infinite lists===
Prelude> [1..]
The list of all squares:
square x = x*x
squares = map square [1..]
But in the end, you probably don't want to use infinite lists, but make them finite. You can do this with <hask>take</hask>:
Prelude> take 10 squares
===List comprehensions===
The list of all squares can also be written in a more comprehensive way, using list comprehensions:
squares = [x*x | x <- [1..]]
List comprehensions allow for constraints as well:
-- multiples of 3 or 5
mults = [ x | x <- [1..], mod x 3 == 0 || mod x 5 == 0 ]
== Pattern matching ==
Haskell does implicit pattern matching.
A good example of pattern matching is done in the fact function for finding a factorial.
fact :: Integer -> Integer
fact 0 = 1
fact n = n * fact (n - 1)
In this function, <hask>fact :: Integer -> Integer</hask> is the functions type definition.
The next line, <hask>fact 0 = 1</hask> is a pattern match, so when the argument to the function fact is 0, the return value is 1.
The 3rd and final line of this function is another pattern match, which says that, whatever number was entered as the argument, is multiplied by the factorial of that number, minus 1. Notice this function is recursive.
Pattern matching in Haskell evaluates the patterns in the order they are written, so <hask>fact 0 = 1</hask> is evaluated before <hask>fact n = n * fact (n - 1)</hask>.
== Files ==
=== Simple IO ===
Using <hask>interact :: (String -> String) -> IO ()</hask>, you can easily do things with stdin and stdout.
A program to sum up numbers:
<haskell>main = interact $ show . sum . map read . lines</haskell>
A program that adds line numbers to each line:
main = interact numberLines
numberLines = unlines . zipWith combine [1..] . lines
where combine lineNumber text = concat [show lineNumber, " ", text]
=== Reading from files ===
The System.IO library contains the functions needed for file IO. The program
below displays the contents of the file c:\test.txt.
import System.IO
main = do
h <- openFile "c:\\test.txt" ReadMode
contents <- hGetContents h
putStrLn contents
hClose h
The same program, with some higher-lever functions:
main = do
contents <- readFile "c:\\test.txt"
putStrLn contents
=== Writing to files ===
The following program writes the first 100 squares to a file:
-- generate a list of squares with length 'num' in string-format.
numbers num = unlines $ take num $ map (show . \x -> x*x) [1..]
main = do
writeFile "test.txt" (numbers 100)
putStrLn "successfully written"
This will override the old contents of the file, or create a new file if the file doesn't exist yet. If you want to append to a file, you can use <hask>appendFile</hask>.
=== Logging to a file ===
== Data structures ==
GHC comes with some handy data-structures by default. If you want to use a Map, use [http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Data-Map.html Data.Map]. For sets, you can use Data.Set. A good way to find efficient data-structures is to take a look at the hierarchical libraries, see [http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/index.html Haskell Hierarchical Libraries] and scroll down to 'Data'.
=== Map ===
A naive implementation of a map would be using a list of tuples in the form of (key, value). This is used a lot, but has the big disadvantage that most operations take O(n) time.
Using [http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Data-Map.html Data.Map] we can construct a fast map using this data-structure:
import qualified Data.Map as Map
myMap :: Map.Map String Int
myMap = Map.fromList [("alice", 111), ("bob", 333), ("douglas", 42)]
We can then do quick lookups:
bobsPhone :: Maybe Int
bobsPhone = Map.lookup myMap "bob"
Map is often imported <hask>qualified</hask> to avoid name-clashing with the Prelude. See [[Import]] for more information.
=== Set ===
=== Tree ===
=== ByteString ===
=== Arrays ===
Arrays are generally eschewed in Haskell. However, they are useful if you desperately need constant lookup or update or if you have huge amounts of raw data.
[http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Data-Array-IArray.html Immutable arrays] like <hask>Data.Array.IArray.Array i e</hask> offer lookup in constant time but they get copied when you update an element. Use them if they can be filled in one go.
The following example groups a list of numbers according to their residual after division by <hask>n</hask> in one go.
bucketByResidual :: Int -> [Int] -> Array Int [Int]
bucketByResidual n xs = accumArray (\xs x -> x:xs) [] (0,n-1) [(x `mod` n, x) | x <- xs]
Data.Arra.IArray> bucketByResidual 4 [x*x | x <- [1..10]]
array (0,3) [(0,[100,64,36,16,4]),(1,[81,49,25,9,1]),(2,[]),(3,[])]
Data.Arra.IArray> amap reverse it
array (0,3) [(0,[4,16,36,64,100]),(1,[1,9,25,49,81]),(2,[]),(3,[])]
Note that the array can fill itself up in a circular fashion. Useful for dynamic programming. Here is the [[Edit distance]] between two strings without array updates.
editDistance :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Int
editDistance xs ys = table ! (m,n)
(m,n) = (length xs, length ys)
x = array (1,m) (zip [1..] xs)
y = array (1,n) (zip [1..] ys)
table :: Array (Int,Int) Int
table = array bnds [(ij, dist ij) | ij <- range bnds]
bnds = ((0,0),(m,n))
dist (0,j) = j
dist (i,0) = i
dist (i,j) = minimum [table ! (i-1,j) + 1, table ! (i,j-1) + 1,
if x ! i == y ! j then table ! (i-1,j-1) else 1 + table ! (i-1,j-1)]
[http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Data-Array-MArray.html Mutable arrays] like <hask>Data.Array.IO.IOArray i e</hask> are updated in place, but they have to live in the IO-monad or the ST-monad in order to not destroy referential transparency. There are also [http://haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Data-Array-Diff.html diff arrays] like <hask>Data.Array.Diff.DiffArray i e</hask> that look like immutable arrays but do updates in place if used in a single threaded way. Here is depth first search with diff arrays that checks whether a directed graph contains a cycle. ''Note: this example really belongs to Map or Set.''
import Control.Monad.State
type Node = Int
data Color = White | Grey | Black
hasCycle :: Array Node [Node] -> Bool
hasCycle graph = runState (mapDfs $ indices g) initSeen
initSeen :: DiffArray Node Color
initSeen = listArray (bounds graph) (repeat White)
mapDfs = fmap or . mapM dfs
dfs node = get >>= \seen -> case (seen ! node) of
Black -> return False
Grey -> return True -- we found a cycle
White -> do
modify $ \seen -> seen // [(node,Grey )]
found <- mapDfs (graph ! node)
modify $ \seen -> seen // [(node,Black)]
return found
== Network programming ==
The following example makes use of the Network and System.IO libraries to open
a socket connection to Google and retrieve the Google home page.
import Network;
import System.IO;
main = withSocketsDo $ do
h <- connectTo "www.google.com" (PortNumber 80)
hSetBuffering h LineBuffering
hPutStr h "GET / HTTP/1.1\nhost: www.google.com\n\n"
contents <- hGetContents h
putStrLn contents
hClose h
== XML ==
=== Libraries ===
There are multiple libraries available. In my own (limited) experience, I could only get [[HXT]] to do everything I wanted. It does make heavy use of [[http://haskell.org/arrows Arrows]].
=== Parsing XML ===
== Databases ==
=== MySQL ===
=== PostgreSQL ===
=== SQLite ===
== Graphical user interfaces ==
=== wxHaskell ===
[[http://wxhaskell.sourceforge.net/ wxHaskell]] is a portable and native GUI library for Haskell based on the wxWidgets Library.
Hello World example:
module Main where
import Graphics.UI.WX
main :: IO ()
= start hello
hello :: IO ()
= do f <- frame [text := "Hello!"]
quit <- button f [text := "Quit", on command := close f]
set f [layout := widget quit]
This code was taken from [[http://wxhaskell.sourceforge.net/quickstart.html "a quick start with wxHaskell"]] on the wxHaskell site.
=== Gtk2Hs ===
[http://haskell.org/gtk2hs/screenshots/ Gtk2Hs] is a GUI Library for
Haskell based on GTK. [http://home.telfort.nl/sp969709/gtk2hs/ Gtk2Hs Tutorial].
Hello world example:
import Graphics.UI.Gtk
main :: IO ()
main = do
w <- windowNew
b <- buttonNew
set b [buttonLabel := "Quit"]
onClicked b $ widgetDestroy w
set w [windowTitle := "Hello", containerBorderWidth := 10]
containerAdd w b
onDestroy w mainQuit
widgetShowAll w
For more examples, see: [[Applications and libraries/Games]]
=== HOpenGL ===
[[http://www.haskell.org/HOpenGL/ HOpenGL]] is a Haskell binding for the OpenGL graphics API (GL 1.2.1 / GLU 1.3) and the portable OpenGL utility toolkit GLUT.
There is a Haskell OpenGL Tetris program at
[[http://haskell-tetris.pbwiki.com/Main]] by Jim.
See also: [[Applications and libraries/Games]]
=== SDL ===
There are some Haskell bindings to [[http://libsdl.org SDL]] at [http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/archive/pkg-list.html Hackage].
== FFI ==
=== How to interface with C===
Magnus has written [http://therning.org/magnus/archives/315 a nice example ] on how to call a C function operating on a user defined type.
== Testing ==
=== QuickCheck ===
=== HUnit ===

Latest revision as of 18:49, 26 May 2011

Haskell Cookbook

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