# Euler problems/101 to 110

## Contents

## Problem 101

Investigate the optimum polynomial function to model the first k terms of a given sequence.

Solution:

```
problem_101 = undefined
```

## Problem 102

For how many triangles in the text file does the interior contain the origin?

Solution:

```
import Text.Regex
--ghc -M p102.hs
isOrig (x1:y1:x2:y2:x3:y3:[])=
t1*t2>=0 && t3*t4>=0 && t5*t6>=0
where
x4=0
y4=0
t1=(y2-y1)*(x4-x1)+(x1-x2)*(y4-y1)
t2=(y2-y1)*(x3-x1)+(x1-x2)*(y3-y1)
t3=(y3-y1)*(x4-x1)+(x1-x3)*(y4-y1)
t4=(y3-y1)*(x2-x1)+(x1-x3)*(y2-y1)
t5=(y3-y2)*(x4-x2)+(x2-x3)*(y4-y2)
t6=(y3-y2)*(x1-x2)+(x2-x3)*(y1-y2)
buildTriangle s = map read (splitRegex (mkRegex ",") s) :: [Integer]
problem_102=do
x<-readFile "triangles.txt"
let y=map buildTriangle$lines x
print $length$ filter isOrig y
```

## Problem 103

Investigating sets with a special subset sum property.

Solution:

```
six=[11,18,19,20,22,25]
seven=[mid+a|let mid=six!!3,a<-0:six]
problem_103=foldl (++) "" $map show seven
```

## Problem 104

Finding Fibonacci numbers for which the first and last nine digits are pandigital.

Solution:

Very nice problem. I didnt realize you could deal with the precision problem. Therefore I used this identity to speed up the fibonacci calculation: f_(2*n+k) = f_k*(f_(n+1))^2 + 2*f_(k-1)*f_(n+1)*f_n + f_(k-2)*(f_n)^2

```
import Data.List
import Data.Char
fibos = rec 0 1
where
rec a b = a:rec b (a+b)
fibo_2nk n k =
let
fkm1 = fibo (k-1)
fkm2 = fibo (k-2)
fk = fkm1 + fkm2
fnp1 = fibo (n+1)
fnp1sq = fnp1^2
fn = fibo n
fnsq = fn^2
in
fk*fnp1sq + 2*fkm1*fnp1*fn + fkm2*fnsq
fibo x =
let
threshold = 30000
n = div x 3
k = n+mod x 3
in
if x < threshold
then fibos !! x
else fibo_2nk n k
findCandidates = rec 0 1 0
where
m = 10^9
rec a b n =
let
continue = rec b (mod (a+b) m) (n+1)
isBackPan a = (sort $ show a) == "123456789"
in
if isBackPan a
then n:continue
else continue
search =
let
isFrontPan x = (sort $ take 9 $ show x) == "123456789"
in
map fst
$ take 1
$ dropWhile (not.snd)
$ zip findCandidates
$ map (isFrontPan.fibo) findCandidates
problem_104 = search
```

It took 8 sec on a 2.2Ghz machine.

The lesson I learned fom this challenge, is: know mathematical identities and exploit them. They allow you take short cuts. Normally you compute all previous fibonacci numbers to compute a random fibonacci number. Which has linear costs. The aforementioned identity builds the number not from its two predecessors but from 4 much smaller ones. This makes the algorithm logarithmic in its complexity. It really shines if you want to compute a random very large fibonacci number. f.i. the 10mio.th fibonacci number which is over 2mio characters long, took 20sec to compute on my 2.2ghz laptop.

## Problem 105

Find the sum of the special sum sets in the file.

Solution:

```
import List
import Text.Regex
--ghc -M p105.hs
digitstwo n k
|k==0=[]
|otherwise= y:digitstwo x (k-1)
where
(x,y)=divMod n 2
subset lst=
[delzero t|
n<-[0..2^len-1],
let a=digitstwo n len,
let t=zip lst a
]
where
len=length lst
delzero x=[a|(a,b)<-x,b/=0]
notEqu lst=
length sm ==(length.nub) sm
where
su=subset lst
sm=[sum a|a<-su]
moreElem lst=
foldl (&&) True [k|a<-su,let len=length a,let k=sum a>maE!!len]
where
le=length lst
su=subset lst
maxsum su a=maximum[sum b|b<-su,length b==a]
maxElem lst = (-1):0:[maxsum su a|a<-[1..le-1]]++[sum lst]
maE=maxElem lst
buildTriangle s = map read (splitRegex (mkRegex ",") s) :: [Integer]
problem_105=do
x<-readFile "sets.txt"
let sm=[a|a<-map buildTriangle $ lines x,notEqu a]
let me=[a|a<-sm,moreElem a]
print $sum$concat me
```

## Problem 106

Find the minimum number of comparisons needed to identify special sum sets.

Solution:

```
binomial x y =div (prodxy (y+1) x) (prodxy 1 (x-y))
prodxy x y=product[x..y]
-- http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DyckPath.html
catalan n=flip div (n+1) $binomial (2*n) n
calc n=
sum[e*(c-d)|
a<-[1..di2],
let mu2=a*2,
let c=flip div 2 $ binomial mu2 a,
let d=catalan a,
let e=binomial n mu2]
where
di2=div n 2
problem_106 = calc 12
```

## Problem 107

Determining the most efficient way to connect the network.

Solution:

```
problem_107 = undefined
```

## Problem 108

Solving the Diophantine equation 1/x + 1/y = 1/n.

Solution:

```
import List
primes=[2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19,23,29,31,37,41,43,47,53,59,61,67,71,73]
series _ 1 =[[0]]
series xs n =[x:ps|x<-xs,ps<-series [0..x] (n-1) ]
distinct=product. map (+1)
sumpri x=product $map (\(x,y)->x^y)$zip primes x
prob x y =head$sort[(sumpri m ,m)|m<-series [1..3] x,(>y)$distinct$map (*2) m]
problem_108=prob 7 2000
```

## Problem 109

How many distinct ways can a player checkout in the game of darts with a score of less than 100?

Solution:

```
problem_109 = undefined
```

## Problem 110

Find an efficient algorithm to analyse the number of solutions of the equation 1/x + 1/y = 1/n.

Solution:

```
-- prob in problem_108
problem_110 = prob 13 (8*10^6)
```