From HaskellWiki
Revision as of 10:48, 4 September 2006 by AndreaRossato (talk | contribs) (added link to Meet Bob The Monadic Lover)

Jump to: navigation, search
Monad class (base)
import Control.Monad

The Monad class is defined like this:

class Monad m where
  (>>=) :: m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b
  (>>) :: m a -> m b -> m b
  return :: a -> m a
  fail :: String -> m a

All instances of Monad should obey:

return a >>= k  =  k a
m >>= return  =  m
m >>= (\x -> k x >>= h)  =  (m >>= k) >>= h

Any Monad can be made a Functor by defining

fmap ab ma = ma >>= (return . ab)

However, the Functor class is not a superclass of the Monad class. See Functor hierarchy proposal.

Monad Tutorials

Monads are known for being deeply confusing to lots of people, so there are plenty of tutorials specifically related to monads. Each takes a different approach to Monads, and hopefully everyone will find something useful.

Monad Reference Guides

An explanation of the basic Monad functions, with examples, can be found in the reference guide A tour of the Haskell Monad functions, by Henk-Jan van Tuyl.