This timeline covers not just monad tutorials, but interesting events in monad tutorial history.

Please update this list! Don't worry about getting dates, authors, blurbs unless you really want to. We can fix it later.

Older tutorials are especially interesting.

The existence of this page also indicates that a observation made by one of the tutorial authors is actually correct:

...it seems like every programmer who gets monads posts a tutorial about them. (And each post begins with: There’s already a lot of monad tutorials on the Internet, but...) The reason is that getting monads it’s like a spiritual experience that you want to share with others. (Bartosz Milewski)

## before 2000

"Shall I be pure or impure?" ... "A monad is a triple (M; unit; *) consisting of a type constructor M and two operations of the given polymorphic types."
• 1995-05 Monadic IO in Haskell 1.3, Andrew D. Gordon and Kevin Hammond.
"We describe the design and use of monadic I/O in Haskell 1.3"
• 1999-02 What the hell are Monads? Noel Winstanley
"For our purposes, a monad is a triple of a type and then> & return operators defined over it so that the following laws apply: ..."
Written when 'what is a monad' started becoming an FAQ. Very short and sweet, advertised as more examples than theory. "Once upon a time, people wrote their Haskell programs by sequencing together operations in an ad-hoc way."

## year 2003

A comprehensive introduction to monads, covering also "advanced" topics like monad transformers and use of some common monads. There is an appendix which presents monads as assembly lines.

## year 2004

• 2004-07 A Schemer's Introduction to Monads
"This will be an introduction to monads from a Lisp/Scheme perspective, with the assumption that the reader is comfortable with continuations, CPS, accumulators, and accumulator-passing style."
• 2004-07 Monads as Containers - Cale Gibbard
Presents monads as boxes. Uses `fmap` and `join`. "If you will give me a blueberry for each apple I give you `(a -> b)`, and I have a box of apples `(f a)`, then I can get a box of blueberries `(f b)`."
• 2004-08 Monads in Perl - Greg Buchholz
Written in the spirit of TMTOWTDI

## year 2005

• 2005-07 Monads in Ruby - MenTaLguY
Presents monads in a friendly language, starting from Identity and building on up
• 2005-11 Of monads and space suits - Eric Kow
Functions are space stations, parameters are astronauts and monads are space suits that let us safely travel from one function to another.

## year 2006

• 2006-03 Understanding Monads - Eric Kow
Monads as nuclear waste containers, an adaptation of monads as space suits with a new metaphor suggested by Paul Johnson
• 2006-07 The Monadic Way - Andrea Rossato
A two-part tutorial. The first part shows you how build a simple evaluator, and the second part shows you how to "take the complexity" out of it by using techniques such as monad transformers
• 2006-08 You could have invented monads! (and maybe you already have) - Dan Piponi
"Writing introductions to monads seems to have developed into an industry," Dan (sigfpe) observes. He argues that monads are not "something esoteric in need of explanation", but walks you through the process of reinventing monads to solve some very basic and practical problems.
• 2006-09 Meet Bob The Monadic Lover - Andrea Rossato
Bob embarks upon a series of romantic conquests... bind bind bind, Paula, Luisa, Antonia
• 2006-10 Monad Transformers Step by Step - Martin Grabmüller
• Monad transformers are rarely covered in introductory tutorials. This "is not a paper about implementing transformers, but about using them to write elegant, clean and powerful programs in Haskell". Available as a 12 page PDF or .lhs file.
• 2006-11 There's a Monster in my Haskell! Andrew Pimlott
This delightful "tutorial" presents monads as monsters which devour values, use them to feed other monsters and regurgitate them when slain.
• 2006-12 Maybe Monad in Java - Tony Morris
Monads can also be useful in Java!

## year 2007

• 2007-01 Think of a monad - Don Stewart (reposted on Eric Kow's blog)
Don integrates some pre-existing monadic metaphors, shedding light on monads in a truly comprehensive manner (illustration by Eric)
• 2007-02 Understanding Monads. For Real - Karsten Wagner
A monad is like a macro
Author's Description: This crash course starts with an EASY! introduction to categories and functors, then we define a monad, then give some basic examples of monads in categories, then present monadic terminology as used in programming languages.
Then I lie down in a dark room with a warm wet cloth over my eyes.
• 2007-04 The Real Monad Transformer - Henning Thielemann
Not a tutorial either, but an important aid in demystifying monads
• 2007-03 Monads in 15 Minutes - Eric Kidd
Eric boils monads down to 15 minutes, using backtracking and Maybe as motivating examples. Eric uses `join`, which seems quite rare for monad tutorials (cf Cale's Monads as containers)
• 2007-07 Monads! (and why monad tutorials are all awful) - Colin Gordon?
Csgordon reports that monad tutorials tend to "get horribly botched" and says "[they] either bored me to tears, struck me as completely inane, or simply confused me". He uncovers the early Phil Wadler's paper, Monads for Functional Programming, which not only gives a clear explanation but provides non-trivial motivating examples
• 2007-08 Monads as computation - Cale Gibbard
A very straightforward presentation of monads. Notable for its "The whole point" section, which conveys why we bother with all this monad business.
• 2007-08 Understanding Monads (2) - Apfelmus
Wikibook rewrite of the original monads tutorial. Less fluff, more pedagogy. [In progress at the time of this writing].
• 2007-08 Monad (sans metaphors) - Claus Reinke
• 2007-11 How to do IO in Haskell - Toby Goodwin
In some ways, a non-monad tutorial, describes Haskell IO (with lots and lots of examples) with an emphasis on types, rather than monad theory