Difference between revisions of "Roll your own IRC bot"

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m (small clarification)
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<haskell>
 
<haskell>
loop st = runReaderT run st
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loop st = runReaderT run st
 
</haskell>
 
</haskell>
   
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tells the compiler.
 
tells the compiler.
   
</haskell>
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<haskell>
 
io :: IO a -> Net a
 
io :: IO a -> Net a
 
io = liftIO
 
io = liftIO
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</haskell>
 
</haskell>
   
Almost done! Let's run this:
 
  +
Note that we threw in a new control structure, <hask>notify</hask>, for
 
fun. Now we're almost done! Let's run this bot.
  +
  +
Using GHC/runhaskell:
  +
<code>
  +
$ runhaskell 4.hs
  +
</code>
  +
  +
<code>
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$ ghc --make 4.hs -o tutbot
  +
Chasing modules from: 4.hs
  +
Compiling Main ( 4.hs, 4.o )
  +
Linking ...
  +
$ ./tutbot
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</code>
  +
  +
If you're using Hugs, you'll have to use the <hask>-98</hask> flag:
  +
<code>
  +
$ runhugs -98 4.hs
  +
</code>
  +
  +
And from an IRC client we can watch it connect:
   
 
<code>
 
<code>

Revision as of 05:01, 4 October 2006

This tutorial is designed as a practical guide to writing real world code in Haskell, and hopes to intuitively motivate and introduce some of the advanced features of Haskell to the novice programmer. Our goal is to write a concise, robust and elegant IRC bot in Haskell.

Getting started

You'll need a reasonably recent version of GHC or Hugs. Our first step is to get on the network. So let's start by importing the Network package, and the standard IO library and defining a server to connect to.

import Network
import System.IO

server = "irc.freenode.org"
port   = 6667

main = do
    h <- connectTo server (PortNumber (fromIntegral port))
    hSetBuffering h NoBuffering
    t <- hGetContents h
    print t

The key here is the main function. This is the entry point to a Haskell program. We first connect to the server, then set the buffering on the socket off. Once we've got a socket, we can then just read and print any data we receive.

Put this code in the module 1.hs, and we can then run it. Use whichever system you like:

Using runhaskell:

   $ runhaskell 1.hs
   "NOTICE AUTH :*** Looking up your hostname...\r\nNOTICE AUTH :***
   Checking ident\r\nNOTICE AUTH :*** Found your hostname\r\n ...

Or we can just compile it to an executable with GHC:

   $ ghc --make 1.hs -o tutbot
   Chasing modules from: 1.hs
   Compiling Main             ( 1.hs, 1.o )
   Linking ...
   $ ./tutbot
   "NOTICE AUTH :*** Looking up your hostname...\r\nNOTICE AUTH :***
   Checking ident\r\nNOTICE AUTH :*** Found your hostname\r\n ...

Or using GHCi:

   $ ghci 1.hs
   *Main> main
   "NOTICE AUTH :*** Looking up your hostname...\r\nNOTICE AUTH :***
   Checking ident\r\nNOTICE AUTH :*** Found your hostname\r\n ...

Or in Hugs:

   $ runhugs 1.hs
   "NOTICE AUTH :*** Looking up your hostname...\r\nNOTICE AUTH :***
   Checking ident\r\nNOTICE AUTH :*** Found your hostname\r\n ...

Great! We're on the network.

Talking IRC

Now we're listening to the server, we better start sending some information back. Three details are important: the nick, the user name, and a channel to join. So let's send those.

import Network
import System.IO
import Text.Printf

server = "irc.freenode.org"
port   = 6667
chan   = "#tutbot-testing"
nick   = "tutbot"

main = do
    h <- connectTo server (PortNumber (fromIntegral port))
    hSetBuffering h NoBuffering
    write h "NICK" nick
    write h "USER" (nick++" 0 * :tutorial bot")
    write h "JOIN" chan
    listen h

write :: Handle -> String -> String -> IO ()
write h s t = do
    hPrintf h "%s %s\r\n" s t
    printf    "> %s %s\n" s t

listen h = forever $ do
    s <- hGetLine h
    putStrLn s
  where
    forever a = a >> forever a

Now, we've done quite a few things here. Firstly, we import Text.Printf, which will be useful. We also set up a channel name and bot nickname. The main function has been extended to send messages back to the IRC server, using a write function. Let's look at that a bit more closely:

write :: Handle -> String -> String -> IO ()
write h s t = do
    hPrintf h "%s %s\r\n" s t
    printf    "> %s %s\n" s t

We've given write an explicit type to help document it, and we'll use explicit types signatures from now on, as they're just good practice (though of course not required, as Haskell uses type inference to work out the types anyway).

The write function takes 3 arguments: a handle (our socket), and then two strings representing an IRC protocol action, and any arguments it takes. write then uses hPrintf to build an IRC message, and write it over the wire to the server. For debugging purposes we also print to standard output the message we send.

Our second function, listen, is as follows:

listen :: Handle -> IO ()
listen h = forever $ do
    s <- hGetLine h
    putStrLn s
  where
    forever a = a >> forever a

This function takes a Handle argument, and sits in an infinite loop reading lines of text from the network, and printing them. We take advantage of two powerful features, lazy evaluation and higher order functions, to roll our own loop control structure, forever, as a normal function! forever takes a chunk of code as an argument, evaluates it, and recurses -- an infinite loop function. It is very common to roll our own control structures in Haskell this way, using higher order functions. No need to add new syntax to the language, when you can just write a normal function to implement whatever control flow you wish.

Let's run this thing:

   $ runhaskell 2.hs
   > NICK tutbot
   > USER tutbot 0 * :tutorial bot
   > JOIN #tutbot-testing
   NOTICE AUTH :*** Looking up your hostname...
   NOTICE AUTH :*** Found your hostname, welcome back
   NOTICE AUTH :*** Checking ident
   NOTICE AUTH :*** No identd (auth) response
   :orwell.freenode.net 001 tutbot :Welcome to the freenode IRC Network tutbot
   :orwell.freenode.net 002 tutbot :Your host is orwell.freenode.net
   ...
   :tutbot!n=tutbot@aa.bb.cc.dd JOIN :#tutbot-testing
   :orwell.freenode.net MODE #tutbot-testing +ns
   :orwell.freenode.net 353 tutbot @ #tutbot-testing :@tutbot
   :orwell.freenode.net 366 tutbot #tutbot-testing :End of /NAMES list.

And we're in business! From an irc client, we can watch the bot connect:

   15:02 -- tutbot [n=tutbot@aa.bb.cc.dd] has joined #tutbot-testing
   15:02  dons> hello

And the bot logs to standard output:

   :dons!i=dons@my.net PRIVMSG #tutbot-testing :hello

We can now implement some commands.

A simple interpreter

import Network
import System.IO
import Text.Printf
import Data.List
import System.Exit

server = "irc.freenode.org"
port   = 6667
chan   = "#tutbot-testing"
nick   = "tutbot"

main :: IO ()
main = do
    h <- connectTo server (PortNumber (fromIntegral port))
    hSetBuffering h NoBuffering
    write h "NICK" nick
    write h "USER" (nick++" 0 * :tutorial bot")
    write h "JOIN" chan
    listen h

listen :: Handle -> IO ()
listen h = forever $ do
    s <- init `fmap` hGetLine h
    if ping s then pong s else eval h (clean s)
    putStrLn s
  where
    forever a = a >> forever a
    clean     = drop 1 . dropWhile (/= ':') . drop 1
    ping x    = "PING :" `isPrefixOf` x
    pong x    = write h "PONG" (':' : drop 6 x)

eval :: Handle -> String -> IO ()
eval h    "!quit"                = write h "QUIT" ":Exiting" >> exitWith ExitSuccess
eval h x | "!id " `isPrefixOf` x = privmsg h (drop 4 x)
eval _   _                       = return () -- ignore everything else

privmsg :: Handle -> String -> IO ()
privmsg h s = write h "PRIVMSG" (chan ++ " :" ++ s)

write :: Handle -> String -> String -> IO ()
write h s t = do
    hPrintf h "%s %s\r\n" s t
    printf    "> %s %s\n" s t

We add 3 features to the bot here, by modifying listen. Firstly, it responds to PING messages: if ping s then pong s .... This is useful for servers that require pings to keep clients connected. We also add a new function, eval, which takes a cleaned up input string, and then dispatches bot commands where appropriate:

eval :: Handle -> String -> IO ()
eval h    "!quit"                = write h "QUIT" ":Exiting" >> exitWith ExitSuccess
eval h x | "!id " `isPrefixOf` x = privmsg h (drop 4 x)
eval _   _                       = return () -- ignore everything else

So, if the single string "!quit" is received, we inform the server, and exit the program. If a string beginning with "!id" we echo any argument string back to the server (id id is the Haskell identity function, which just returns its argument). Finally, if no other matches occur, we do nothing.

We add the privmsg function, a useful wrapper over write for sending PRIVMSG lines to the server.

Here's a transcript from our minimal bot running in channel:

   15:12 -- tutbot [n=tutbot@aa.bb.cc.dd] has joined #tutbot-testing
   15:13  dons> !id hello, world!
   15:13  tutbot> hello, world!
   15:13  dons> !id very pleased to meet you.
   15:13  tutbot> very pleased to meet you.
   15:13  dons> !quit
   15:13 -- tutbot [n=tutbot@aa.bb.cc.dd] has quit [Client Quit]

Now, before we go further, let's refactor the code a bit.

Roll your own monad

A small annoyance so far has been that we've had to thread around our socket to every function that needs to talk to the network. The socket is essentially immutable state, that could be treated as a global read only value in other languages. In Haskell, we can implement such a structure using a state monad. Monads are a very powerful abstraction, , and we'll only touch on them here. The interested reader is referred to All About Monads. We'll be using a custom monad specifically to implement a read-only global state for our bot.

The key requirement is that we wish to be able to perform IO actions, as well as thread a small state value transparently through the program. As this is Haskell, we can take the extra step of partitioning our stateful code from all other program code, using a new type.

So let's define a small state monad:

data Bot = Bot { socket :: Handle }

type Net = ReaderT Bot IO

Firstly, we define a data type for the global state. In this case, it is the Bot type, a simple struct storing our network socket. When then layer this data type over our existing IO code, with a monad transformer. This isn't as scary as it sounds, and the effect is that we can just treat the socket as a global read-only value, anywhere we need it. We'll call this new io + state structure the Net monad.

We can now throw out all that socket threading, and just grab the socket when we need it. The key steps are, once we've connected to the server, to initialise our new state monad, and the main bot loop with that state. We add a small function, which takes the intial bot state, and evaluates the bot's run loop "in" the Net monad.

loop st = runReaderT run st

While we're here we can tidy up the main function a little, by using bracket to explicitly delimit the connection, shutdown and main loop phases of the program -- a useful technique. We can also make the code a bit more robust, by wrapping the main loop in an exception handler, using catch:

main :: IO ()
main = bracket connect disconnect loop
  where
    disconnect = hClose . socket
    loop st    = catch (runReaderT run st) (const $ return ())

That is, the higher order function bracket takes 3 arguments: a function to connect to the server, and function to disconnect, and a main loop to run in between. We can use bracket whenever we wish to run some code before and after a particular action -- like forever, this is another control structure implemented as a normal Haskell function.

Rather than threading the socket around, we can now simply ask for it when needed. Note that the type of write changes: it is in the Net monad, which tells us that the bot must already by connected to a server (and thus it is ok to use the socket, as it is initialised).

--
-- Send a message out to the server we're currently connected to
--
write :: String -> String -> Net ()
write s t = do
    h <- asks socket
    io $ hPrintf h "%s %s\r\n" s t
    io $ printf    "> %s %s\n" s t

In order to use both state and IO, we use the small io function to lift an IO expression into the Net monad. This tells the compiler.

io :: IO a -> Net a
io = liftIO

The monadic, stateful, exception-handling bot in all its glory:

import Data.List
import Network
import System.IO
import System.Exit
import Control.Monad.Reader
import Control.Exception
import Control.Concurrent
import Text.Printf
import Prelude hiding (catch)

server = "irc.freenode.org"
port   = 6667
chan   = "#tutbot-testing"
nick   = "tutbot"

--
-- The 'Net' monad, a wrapper over IO, carrying the bot's immutable state.
--
type Net = ReaderT Bot IO
data Bot = Bot { socket :: Handle }

--
-- Set up actions to run on start and end, and run the main loop
--
main :: IO ()
main = bracket connect disconnect loop
  where
    disconnect = hClose . socket
    loop st    = catch (runReaderT run st) (const $ return ())

--
-- Connect to the server and return the initial bot state
--
connect :: IO Bot
connect = notify $ do
    h <- connectTo server (PortNumber (fromIntegral port))
    hSetBuffering h NoBuffering
    return (Bot h)
  where
    notify a = bracket_
        (printf "Connecting to %s ... " server >> hFlush stdout)
        (putStrLn "done.")
        a

--
-- We're in the Net monad now, so we've connected successfully
-- Join a channel, and start processing commands
--
run :: Net ()
run = do
    write "NICK" nick
    write "USER" (nick++" 0 * :tutorial bot")
    write "JOIN" chan
    asks socket >>= listen

--
-- Process each line from the server
--
listen :: Handle -> Net ()
listen h = forever $ do
    s <- init `fmap` io (hGetLine h)
    io (putStrLn s)
    if ping s then pong s else eval (clean s)
  where
    forever a = a >> forever a
    clean     = drop 1 . dropWhile (/= ':') . drop 1
    ping x    = "PING :" `isPrefixOf` x
    pong x    = write "PONG" (':' : drop 6 x)

--
-- Dispatch a command
--
eval :: String -> Net ()
eval     "!quit"               = write "QUIT" ":Exiting" >> io (exitWith ExitSuccess)
eval x | "!id " `isPrefixOf` x = privmsg (drop 4 x)
eval     _                     = return () -- ignore everything else

--
-- Send a privmsg to the current chan + server
--
privmsg :: String -> Net ()
privmsg s = write "PRIVMSG" (chan ++ " :" ++ s)

--
-- Send a message out to the server we're currently connected to
--
write :: String -> String -> Net ()
write s t = do
    h <- asks socket
    io $ hPrintf h "%s %s\r\n" s t
    io $ printf    "> %s %s\n" s t

--
-- Convenience.
--
io :: IO a -> Net a
io = liftIO

Note that we threw in a new control structure, notify, for fun. Now we're almost done! Let's run this bot.

Using GHC/runhaskell: $ runhaskell 4.hs

$ ghc --make 4.hs -o tutbot Chasing modules from: 4.hs Compiling Main ( 4.hs, 4.o ) Linking ... $ ./tutbot

If you're using Hugs, you'll have to use the -98 flag: $ runhugs -98 4.hs

And from an IRC client we can watch it connect:

   15:26 -- tutbot [n=tutbot@aa.bb.cc.dd] has joined #tutbot-testing
   15:28  dons> !id all good?
   15:28  tutbot> all good?
   15:28  dons> !quit
   15:28 -- tutbot [n=tutbot@aa.bb.cc.dd] has quit [Client Quit]

So we now have a bot with explicit read-only monadic state, error handling, and some basic IRC operations.