Yhc/Javascript/Programmers guide/Echo demo source

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module Echo where -- This program demonstrates the lowest possible level of interaction -- with Javascript. No extra libraries, no programming paradigms: -- just some helper functions defined directly via unsafeJS. -- Import the UnsafeJS module to get access to the low-level Javascript, -- that is, ability to wrap arbitrary Javascript expressions into -- a Haskell-callable function. See a special section of ycr2js -- Programmers guide where usage of unsafeJS is discussed in details. import UnsafeJS import Char -- Import this module for decimal to Roman and Roman to decimal conversions. -- This also serves as a primitive benchmark, and shows that third-party code -- may also be brought into web browser. import Roman -- Import this module to be able to define a monad which provides -- correct ordering of Javascript execution. import Control.Monad -- Opaque type for Javascript objects. No values of this type are constructed -- in the Haskell code. But every object returned from Javascript belongs to -- this type. newtype JSObject = JSObject () -- A simple monad used for enforcing actions order only. -- Both its bind operations (>>=, >>) should evaluate their -- left-hand-side expression to make sure all Javascript computations -- associated to that expression have been completed before execution -- goes to the right-hand-side expression. -- Even >> should evaluate its LHS argument although it is "lost" -- for the RHS expression. This is achieved via pattern-matching. -- The same holds for return. data JS a = JS a instance Monad JS where -- bind: execute the LHS expression, extract result from the monad, -- pass on to the RHS expression. (JS a) >>= fn = fn a -- anomymous bind: execute the LHS expression, then the RHS expression -- that is, enforce correct execution order only. (JS a) >> fn = fn -- The return function must evaluate its argument before wrapping it into -- monad. This is important e. g. for exception handlers, otherwise -- nothing may be evaluated within exception handler, and actual exception -- will occur outside of the exception handler and will not be caught properly. return a = a `seq` (JS a) -- Here are the functions to access web-browser's DOM structures. -- In the absence of the standardized framework, these functions -- are coded on ad-hoc basis, and their interface may be imperfect, -- but this is a good demonstration what kind of stuff may be needed -- for a real framework. -- Get the document interface reference getDocument :: JS JSObject -- This (and other) examples show how to return data (including monadic) values -- from Javascript to Haskell. The HSData constructor finction is used allover -- the Javascript code generated form Haskell source to create data objects. -- Its first argument is data constructor name index, and its second argument -- is an array of data object member values in proper order. To obtain -- data constructor name index, one has to refer to the conIdx global variable -- which is indexed by constructor qualified name. Since the JS monad is defined -- in this module named Echo, qualified name of the constructor is Echo.JS. -- Web browser DOM interface defines a global name for the document interface -- access, that is, `document'. Its value is wrapped into the JS monad -- and returned. getDocument = unsafeJS "return new HSData(conIdx['Echo.JS'],[document]);" -- Obtain a property of an object getProperty :: JSObject -> String -> JS JSObject -- Similarly, return a value wrapped into the IO monad. The `a' argument -- is the reference to a Javascript object, and the `b' argument is -- a string containing name of the property to be retrieved. The function -- evaluates both of its arguments and retrieves the property name of `a' -- as an associative array element using the value of `b'. getProperty a b = unsafeJS "return new HSData(conIdx['Echo.JS'],[exprEval(a)[exprEval(b).toString()]]);" -- Modify a property of an object setProperty :: JSObject -> String -> a -> JS () -- Set property named `b' of the object refered to as `a' to the value of `c'. -- The third argument may be of any type, but its evaluation should terminate. -- As a side note: this function returns a `void' value (unit, ()). Its type signature -- might be rearranged, like this: -- -- String -> a -> JSObject -> JS JSObject -- that is, returns the same object with -- -- property modified -- -- then operations of setting object property might be chained in the JS monad: -- -- obj' <- setProperty "prop1" val1 obj >>= -- setProperty "prop2" val2 >>= -- setProperty "prop3" val3 setProperty a b c = unsafeJS "exprEval(a)[exprEval(b).toString()]=exprEval(c);return new HSData(conIdx['Echo.JS'],[]);" -- Invoke a method of an object runMethod :: JSObject -> String -> a -> JS JSObject -- This function obtains reference to an object's method similarly -- to obtaining reference to a property, using the method name string. -- Its third argument `c' must be a list. It is converted into an array -- of function arguments and the method is applied to this array. -- This function uses `cbrApply' rather than the Javascript function object's -- `apply' method for cross-browser compatibility: MSIE DOM functions do not have -- the `apply' method, so cbrApply detects that and works around this issue. -- Evaluation of expressions in `c' is done by the `toArray' method which is properly -- overloaded for Haskell lists as they are unmarshalled to Javascript. runMethod a b c = unsafeJS "var a1=exprEval(a); return new HSData(conIdx['Echo.JS'],[cbrApply(a1[exprEval(b).toString()],a1,c._toArray())]);" -- Output string representation of an object into the status line putStatLn :: a -> JS () -- This is a helper function which sets the `window.status' global object to -- the stringified value of the function's argument. Note how a unit value () -- is returned: an empty array is used as the second argument to HSData. While -- to be exact, one should retrieve an index of the () data constructor and -- construct another data object, the practice shown is acceptable in most cases, -- except for the situation when pattern matching is done on the unit value. putStatLn a = unsafeJS "window.status=exprEval(a).toString(); return new HSData(conIdx['Echo.JS'],[]);" -- Output source representation of an object into the status line putStatLnSrc :: a -> JS () -- Similarly to the function above, but `toSource' method is used. putStatLnSrc a = unsafeJS "window.status=exprEval(a).toSource(); return new HSData('Echo_46JS',[]);" -- Register an event handler (old DOM0 style) regEventHandler :: JSObject -> String -> (JSObject -> JS ()) -> JS () -- This function attaches an old-style event handler `c' to a DOM object -- (such as an input field) `a'. Name of the event is passed in `b' as string -- (e. g. "onkeypress"). This function works around browser incompatibility. -- Mozilla/Netscape/FireFox pass event information as an event handler's -- argument. MSIE passes it in a global object named `event'. This function -- wrap the Haskell handler function into an anonymous function which checks -- for its argument, and if unavailable, tries to get the information -- from the global `event' object. regEventHandler a b c = unsafeJS "exprEval(a)[exprEval(b).toString()]=function(e){if(!e){e=window.event;}; return exprEval(exprEval(c)._ap([e]));}; return new HSData(conIdx['Echo.JS'],[]);" -- Get the numeric representation of an object asInt :: JSObject -> JS Int -- This function (ab)uses the untypedness of Javascript and coerces -- any object to a numeric value. asInt a = unsafeJS "return new HSData(conIdx['Echo.JS'],[new Number(exprEval(a))]);" -- Get the String representation of an object asString :: JSObject -> JS String -- This function (ab)uses the untypedness of Javascript and coerces -- any object to a stringified value. asString a = unsafeJS "return new HSData(conIdx['Echo.JS'],[new String(exprEval(a))]);" -- Catch exceptions using Javascript exception machinery catchJS :: JS a -> (JSObject -> JS a) -> JS a -- This function installs an exception handler `b' while executing an expression -- in `a'. If an exception occurs, it will be passed to the handler which should -- return a "replacement" value. catchJS a b = unsafeJS "try {return exprEval(a);} catch(_e) {return exprEval(b)._ap([_e]);}" -- Get current time in ms since 1970 (for performance measurements) getTime :: Int -> JS Int -- This function obtains current time from the browser. The first argument -- is not used but is necessary in order to have this function evaluated -- more than once. In its absence, evaluation result will be stored in the -- getTime's function descriptor, and it will always return time of the first -- evaluation. getTime a = unsafeJS "return new HSData(conIdx['Echo.JS'],[(new Date()).getTime()]);" -- Key press handler -- element event void inkey :: JSObject -> JSObject -> JS () -- An event handler function has its first argument -- to pass the reference to the object which generates an event. Thus, -- although this builds a circular structure with a DOM object involved (may be harmful -- for MSIE garbage collection), this works around some incompatibilities -- betwenn browsers regarding how event source is encoded in the event. -- As an alternative, object "id" property value might be passed instead of -- reference to an object itself. This would avoid creation of a circular link, -- but would make execution of the event handler slightly longer. -- As a side note: Event handler's type signature might be modified to return -- a modified event. Using this approach, event handlers might be chained -- using the monadic `bind' function which passes output from its LHS expression -- to its RHS expression. -- This handler analyzes code of the key pressed. -- If it is Enter (13) then the input value is placed into a -- dynamically created div and inserted above the input field. inkey o e = do -- Obtain numeric code of the key pressed kcs <- getProperty e "keyCode" >>= asInt -- If `Enter' was pressed when (kcs == (13::Int)) $ do -- Obtain the time when `Enter' was pressed t1 <- getTime 0 -- Get the document interface doc <- getDocument -- Get the document body element interface body <- getProperty doc "body" -- Create a div dynamically mydiv <- runMethod doc "createElement" ["div"] -- Obtain the string typed: it is the value of the input element v <- getProperty o "value" >>= asString -- If the string was not empty when (length v > 0) $ do -- Conversion functions of the Roman module raise error -- when conversion cannot be done. In this case, empty string -- should be returned. rom <- catchJS (return $ (show . fromRoman) v) (\_ -> return "") dec <- catchJS (return $ toRoman (read v)) (\_ -> return "") -- Obtain the time after possible conversion is done t2 <- getTime 0 -- Format the result let dt = t2 - t1 let vr = v ++ " " ++ rom ++ " " ++ dec ++ " " ++ show dt ++ " ms" -- Output the result into the div element setProperty mydiv "innerHTML" vr -- Make the div visible right above the input element runMethod body "insertBefore" [mydiv, o] -- Clear the input element setProperty o "value" "" -- Return from the handler return () return () return () -- Main program. As in "traditional" Haskell programming, it has a monadic type. -- But since there is no "traditional" input/output in a web browser, the IO monad -- is useless here; use the JS monad. main :: JS () main = do -- Get the document interface doc <- getDocument -- Get the document body element interface body <- getProperty doc "body" -- Create the input field. inp <- runMethod doc "createElement" ["input"] -- Set the "id" property. It is unused in this demo, but -- might be helpful in general. setProperty inp "id" "input-echo" -- Append the input element ot the list of body's children -- thus visualizing it. runMethod body "appendChild" [inp] -- Register an event handler on the input field. Note that -- (inkey inp) is passed as an event handler; thus, its closure -- will contain reference to the input element that generates an event. regEventHandler inp "onkeypress" (inkey inp) -- Set input focus. runMethod inp "focus" [] return ()