Being the game programmer I am, it's vitally important for me to know the FPS my code is running at, even if there is no code yet. Some knowledge of Haskell, particularly not being scared of overly-general type signatures and browsing haddock docs, is assumed. Experience with point-free style will come in handy, too.
Let's dive in, bottom to top:
fpsE :: UI -> Event TimeT
fpsE = fmap ((1/) . uncurry (-)) . withPrevE . withTimeE_ . framePass
is a function that maps from
, defined in
and representing the outside world as known to GLUT, to a stream of Events, each event occurrence carrying the current frames per seconds.
, for all you care, with a whole number increment representing a second passing in the real world.
Note that while
is a stream of events, the stream nature does not necessarily show up in your code: If you're only interested in one event at a time, nothing is forcing you to care about more than that.
Reading the above backwards, we get the following:
is fed with our and returns an , each occurrence representing the passing of a frame.
framePass :: UI -> Event ()
- The result is then being fed into
, replacing the in our stream with a representing the time of occurrence of our frame passes.
withTimeE_ :: Ord t => EventG (Improving t) d -> EventG (Improving t) t
pairs up an event's value with the value of the preceding event. This means that the resulting stream's first event occurs at the same time as the original stream's second event, which makes sense: However hard we try, we won't be able to calculate the time difference between the first frame and the ones not preceding it.
withPrevE :: Event a -> Event (a, a)
- Finally, we compute the reciprocal of the time delta () of ... not . That's what the is for.
is a function you'll meet quite often working with Reactive, it is a generalised
: Given a function
and a structure
, it will return a
, changing the value but preserving the structure... provided
has a sane
Now, what are we going to do if we need an
, but have an
? Procrastinating, of course. We're going to need a formatting function, anyway, so let's worry about that, first:
showFPS :: TimeT -> String
showFPS d = showFFloat (Just 2) d "fps"
maps a function over a structure, so
maps a function over two structures... or, if you prefer, pierces two structures:
((fmap.fmap) showFPS fpsE)
is a honest-to-Hindley-Milner function of the type
Bewildered? Read the wikibook entry on Applicative Functor
and Peter Verswyvelen's tutorial on (fmap.fmap.fmap.fmap.fmap.fmap)
. For now, just accept that
is a type like every other.
Knowing that, we can use the function
stepper :: a -> Event a -> Behaviour a
to convert our
... the difference between
s being that an
describes things that happen at particular times, like us being able to compute the current fps because a frame passed, and a
describes what a thing is
, over time.
produces a thing that changes every time an event occurs: a discretely changing function.
s may be non-discrete, too, but we're not going to worry about that, now (even if it is their main excuse for existing in the first place).
timeString :: UI -> Behaviour String
timeString = stepper "" . ((fmap.fmap) showFPS fpsE)
The fist value passed to
is the value the
should have before the first event occurs, in our case it's quite sensible to leave the fps display empty during the first frame.
, a type defined in
, is equivalent to
UI -> Behaviour Geometry3
: Given a reactive representation of the real world, we are assumed to return a continuous representation of the virtual world we want to display, so that the plumbing in the background can sample it any time it wants to display a frame.
timeText :: Anim3 -- UI -> Behaviour Geometry3
timeText = (fmap.fmap) (flatG . utext) timeString
and returns a
, that is, a vanilla OpenGL line font... not the actual geometry, though, just a description of it. Tesselation, rendering, in general everything that requires calls into GL, is done after reactive told fieldtrip what to render.
lifts two-dimensional geometry into three-dimensional space.
We're done! That is, the only thing left is opening a window, initialising GL, mangling the camera so that you can actually see stuff, and so on:
We could have used
and left out the
, but I didn't feel like doing that.
Some time later, we're going to figure out how to display our fps at a decent place and scale, possibly figure out how to use TrueType fonts and, generally, figure out how to do everything one can do with reactive and fieldtrip.