Dependent type

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The concept of dependent types



Dependent Types in Programming abstract in APPSEM'2000

Type theory

Simon Thompson: Type Theory and Functional Programming. Section 6.3 deals with dependent types, but because of the strong emphasis on Curry-Howard isomorphism and the connections between logic and programming, the book seemed cathartic for me even from its beginning.

Another interesting approach to Curry-Howard isomorphism and the concept of dependent type: Lecture 9. Semantics and pragmatics of text and dialogue dicsusses these concepts in the context of linguistics. Written by Arne Ranta, see also his online course and other linguistical materials on the Linguistics wikipage.

Types Forum

Illative combinatory logic

To see how Illative Combinatory logic deals with dependent types, see combinator G described in Systems of Illative Combinatory Logic complete for first-order propositional and predicate calculus by Henk Barendregt, Martin Bunder, Wil Dekkers. It seems to me that the dependent type construct \forall x : S \Rightarrow T of Epigram corresponds to \mathbf G\;S\;(\lambda x . T) in Illative Combinatory Logic. I think e.g. the followings should correspond to each other:

  • \mathrm{realNullvector} :\;\;\;\forall n: \mathrm{Nat} \Rightarrow \mathrm{RealVector}\;n
  • \mathbf G\;\,\mathrm{Nat}\;\,\mathrm{RealVector}\;\,\mathrm{realNullvector}

Dependently typed languages


Epigram is a full dependently typed programming language, see especially

Dependent types (of this language) also provide a not-forgetful concept of views (already mentioned in the Haskell Future#Extensions of Haskell; the connection between these concepts is described in p. 32 of Epigram Tutorial (section 4.6 Patterns Forget; Matching Is Remembering).

See Epigram also as theorem prover.


Agda is a system for incrementally developing proofs and programs. Agda is also a functional language with dependent types. This language is very similar to cayenne and agda is intended to be a (almost) full implementation of it in the future.“

People who are interested also in theorem proving may see the theorem provers page.


Cayenne is influenced also by constructive type theory (see its page).

Dependent types make it possible not to have a separate module lenguage and a core language. This idea may concern Haskell too, see First-class module page.

Depandent types make it useful also as a theorem prover.

Other techniques

APPSEM Workshop on Subtyping & Dependent Types in Programming

Dependent types in Haskell programming


John Hughes: Dependent Types in Haskell (some ideas).

Simulating them