# Difference between revisions of "Laziness is not always good"

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− | Generally, since Haskell is a [[Non-strict_semantics|non-strict]] language, |
+ | Generally, since Haskell is a [[Non-strict_semantics|non-strict]] language, you should try to make a function [[maintaining laziness|least strict]]. |

This is in many cases the best semantics and the most efficient implementation. |
This is in many cases the best semantics and the most efficient implementation. |
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However, here is an important exception from the rule: |
However, here is an important exception from the rule: |
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forall a. mappend a mempty = a |
forall a. mappend a mempty = a |
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</haskell> |
</haskell> |
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− | You find that it is not <hask>mappend mempty undefined = undefined</hask>, |
+ | You find that it is not <hask>mappend mempty undefined = undefined</hask>, but <hask>mappend mempty undefined = mempty</hask>. |

− | but <hask>mappend mempty undefined = mempty</hask>. |
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Is this academic nitpicking or practically relevant? |
Is this academic nitpicking or practically relevant? |
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− | I think it is the latter one, because a <hask>Monoid</hask> instance implicitly promises |
+ | I think it is the latter one, because a <hask>Monoid</hask> instance implicitly promises that monoid laws can be applied in every case. |

− | that monoid laws can be applied in every case. |
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A programmer expects that every occurence of <hask>mappend mempty a</hask> can be safely replaced by <hask>a</hask>. |
A programmer expects that every occurence of <hask>mappend mempty a</hask> can be safely replaced by <hask>a</hask>. |
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You might even create an [[Playing by the rules|optimizer rule]] doing this. |
You might even create an [[Playing by the rules|optimizer rule]] doing this. |
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− | The above implementation of <hask>mappend</hask> however evaluates its operands lazily, |
+ | The above implementation of <hask>mappend</hask> however evaluates its operands lazily, and this gets lost when the optimization is applied. |

− | and this gets lost when the optimization is applied. |
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− | The solution |
+ | The solution of this issue is to define |

<haskell> |
<haskell> |
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mempty = () |
mempty = () |
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If you find that example too academic, you can choose any other data type with one constructor instead. |
If you find that example too academic, you can choose any other data type with one constructor instead. |
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+ | |||

+ | == Exercise == |
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+ | |||

+ | Find out whether it would help to define <hask>mempty = undefined</hask>. |
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== See also == |
== See also == |
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* Haskell-Cafe on [http://www.haskell.org/pipermail/haskell-cafe/2009-January/054261.html Laws and partial values] |
* Haskell-Cafe on [http://www.haskell.org/pipermail/haskell-cafe/2009-January/054261.html Laws and partial values] |
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+ | * Haskell-Cafe on a space leak caused by [http://www.haskell.org/pipermail/haskell-cafe/2010-June/079444.html the garbage collector that did not recognize a selector-like function call] |
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* [[Maintaining laziness]] |
* [[Maintaining laziness]] |
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## Latest revision as of 16:21, 21 September 2011

Generally, since Haskell is a non-strict language, you should try to make a function least strict.
This is in many cases the best semantics and the most efficient implementation.
However, here is an important exception from the rule:
Consider the `Monoid`

instance of the null type `()`

:

```
mempty = ()
mappend _ _ = ()
```

These functions are least strict, but have a subtle problem:
They do not generally satisfy the monoid laws.
Remind you: `mempty`

must be the identity element with respect to `mappend`

:

```
forall a. mappend mempty a = a
forall a. mappend a mempty = a
```

You find that it is not `mappend mempty undefined = undefined`

, but `mappend mempty undefined = mempty`

.
Is this academic nitpicking or practically relevant?
I think it is the latter one, because a `Monoid`

instance implicitly promises that monoid laws can be applied in every case.
A programmer expects that every occurence of `mappend mempty a`

can be safely replaced by `a`

.
You might even create an optimizer rule doing this.
The above implementation of `mappend`

however evaluates its operands lazily, and this gets lost when the optimization is applied.

The solution of this issue is to define

```
mempty = ()
mappend () () = ()
force :: () -> ()
force _ = ()
```

and write

```
mappend (force a) (force b)
```

instead of `mappend a b`

.

If you find that example too academic, you can choose any other data type with one constructor instead.

## Exercise

Find out whether it would help to define `mempty = undefined`

.

## See also

- Haskell-Cafe on Laws and partial values
- Haskell-Cafe on a space leak caused by the garbage collector that did not recognize a selector-like function call
- Maintaining laziness